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Effet du statut en vitamine A sur la voie d'action des glucocorticoïdes et impact sur les processus mnésiques chez le rongeur

Abstract : It is now established that vitamin A and its active metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), are required for cognitive functions in the adult hood. The hyposignaling of retinoic acid and the hyperactivity of the glucocorticoid (GC) pathway appear concomitantly during aging and both would contribute to the deterioration of hippocampal plasticity and functions. Moreover, recent data have evidenced counteracting effects of retinoids on the GC signaling pathway.The goal of the present study has been to shed more light on the interactions between both signaling pathways and their consequences on cerebral plasticity and memory processes.We have investigated them not only in a well-established nutritional model of vitamin A deficiency but also during aging. Indeed, our experimental approach has consisted inmanipulating the status in vitamin A (deficiency and/or supplementation or RA treatment) inrodents to better understand its impact on plasma and intrahippocampal corticosterone levelsand the mechanisms involved in corticosterone bioavailability. Hippocampus-dependentmemory and plasticity (adult neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity-related gene expression)have also been assessed.We have shown a hyperactivity of the glucocorticoid pathway in vitamin A-deficientrats, leading to elevated peripheral and hippocampal corticosterone levels. This is probably due to a decrease in CBG binding capacity and to the hyperactivity of the hippocampal 11β-HSD1. Furthermore, a vitamin A supplementation normalizes glucocorticoid activity and hippocampal neurogenesis levels and corrects memory deficits.Besides, in middle-aged mice, a RA treatment is able to positively modulate the retinoidsignaling pathway inducing a decreased hypersecretion of intrahippocampal corticosterone. It thus counteracts the deleterious effects of an excess of glucocorticoids on neurobiological and memory processes.Altogether, these results contribute to the demonstration that in vitamin A deficiency and during aging, the status in vitamin A modulates GC activity. This work proposes new preventive perspectives based on nutritional factors such as vitamin A in order to delay agerelated cognitive decline.
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Damien Bonhomme. Effet du statut en vitamine A sur la voie d'action des glucocorticoïdes et impact sur les processus mnésiques chez le rongeur. Autre [q-bio.OT]. Université Sciences et Technologies - Bordeaux I, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013BOR14977⟩. ⟨tel-00957462⟩

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