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Approche cognitive pour l'intégration des outils de la géomatique en sciences de l'environnement: modélisation et évaluation.

Abstract : This thesis concerns the integration of GIS mapping tools and analysis in training curricula of applied geosciences and environmental sciences. This study focuses on three dimensions: 1. a cognitive dimension, in order to explore the way of thinking of experienced and novice users when solving spatial problems with GIS; 2. an instructional dimension, in order to identify and integrate the expert methods in the resolution strategies of learners; 3. an educational dimension in order to design, based on cognitive achievement, innovative training tools in line with the demands of the working world. To limit the scope of our study, it was necessary to perform an analysis of the practices of mapping and GIS in the areas of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. It was also necessary to make relevant choices in a professional, educational and societal perspective. We were interested in a particular kind of mapping: GIS-bases land-use suitability mapping, with multi criteria spatial analysis methods. Indeed, this method involves, from a pedagogical point of view, a progressive and comprehensive approach to the use of GIS. It has a professionalizing nature, as it is common practice in environmental projects. Finally, it supports the debate on territorial choices that involve decision making. Different types of users have been observed: experts and students from our academic and professional environment. We performed an exploratory experimental protocol that allowed collecting written and verbal data. Data analyses were supported by theoretical frameworks that fall within the cognitive sciences, especially on visual-cognitive processes involved in reasoning. In terms of methodology, we used the quantitative-based qualitative approach for verbal data analysis. Regarding the results, some components of reasoning involved in the production and perception of the suitability map have been identified. Moreover, differences of instances of actions, operations and concepts used by experts and novices could be measured. Comparing the different strategies adopted by the expert and the students enabled us to re-think the training tools, with instructional aids that target gaps in students' abilities. The real challenge of this thesis was the multidisciplinary contribution to mapping and GIS in Geographic Information Science. Providing knowledge of cognitive psychology and science education, this thesis has contributed to a better understanding of some processes in GIS representation and appropriation. This understanding can improve performances on representations, or propose new ones, thus fostering spatial knowledge.
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Submitted on : Friday, March 7, 2014 - 3:03:50 PM
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Raffaella Balzarini. Approche cognitive pour l'intégration des outils de la géomatique en sciences de l'environnement: modélisation et évaluation.. Ingénierie de l'environnement. Université de Grenoble, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : ⟩. ⟨tel-00956879⟩

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