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Impacts socio-économiques des organismes génétiquement modifiés : cas des suicides des agriculteurs du coton 'Bacilus Thuringiensis' en Inde

Abstract : India is the world’s second largest producer of cotton, after China. The total cotton area in India was 12.1 million hectares in 2011, accounting for approximately one fourth of the world’s total cotton area. After the advent of agricultural biotechnology, the Indian government, under the former prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, has encouraged the use of genetically modified cotton, called Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton. The Bt cotton varieties can provide control against crop loss caused by lepidopteran pests. However, the process of introduction of Bt cotton has not been without difficulty (insect resistance to Bt crop, soil pollution, the excessive use of water and fertilizer, an imbalance of the ecosystem and impoverishment of farmers). Since its first commercialization in India, Bt cotton has caused a considerable discontent and suicides of impoverished cotton farmers. On average, one farmer commits suicide every 30 minutes in India. The victims are mainly small farmer who grow genetically modified cotton seeds in certain states in India (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra). Most of these farmers are deeply indebted to the Mahyco Monsanto Biotech (MMB) Company, which provided them access to credits for buying Bt cotton seeds and pesticides. Is there a correlation between the genetically modified cotton and these suicides? Thus, the purpose of this thesis is to theoretically and empirically explore the causal relationship between Bt cotton and farmer suicides in India...
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Naceur Kheraief. Impacts socio-économiques des organismes génétiquement modifiés : cas des suicides des agriculteurs du coton 'Bacilus Thuringiensis' en Inde. Economies et finances. Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013NICE0022⟩. ⟨tel-00956172⟩

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