Le changement climatique en région de mousson africaine : évolution des champs pluviométriques et atmosphériques dans les simulations CMIP3 et CMIP5 sous scénario A1B et rcp45 (1960-1999, 2031-2070)

Abstract : The fourth IPCC report in 2007 established the synthesis of previously published work onthe effects of climate change on global and regional scales. It shows in particular that no consensuscan be found with regard to the future of rainfall -- and atmospheric dynamics- associatedwith region -- African monsoon. This dissertation revisits this issue in the light of new dataand using an approach avoiding over-representation of the number of simulations available forone type of model and taking into account the diversity of models and their evolution in time :twenty general circulation models (GCMs) participating in the exercises CMIP3 (twelve GCMs)and CMIP5 (eight GCMs) under the A1B emissions scenario and rcp4.5, respectively. Outputsare analyzed on two 40-year periods, -- 'Present' (1960-1999) and 'Future' (2031-2070) -- anddiscussed in terms of likelihood, through an approach allowing us to both quantify differences'future' minus 'present', measure robustness and statistical significances and associate a probabilitymeasuring the model consensus as a function of scales and variables.Analyzes conducted on CMIP3 and CMIP5 show that consensus on the effect of climatechange in West Africa can be achieved if we do not consider the Sahel as a whole and homogeneousentity but at lower scales. The results show contrasted responses over the centraland western Sahel, with for the future, (i) an increase in precipitation in the central regionexplained primarily by a greater convergence of flow in the lower layers and a most northerlymonsoon penetration over the continent, (ii) a rainfall decrease in the western Sahel explainedby increased Walker-type circulation, African easterly jet and mid-level subsidence. Moreover,we can expect a change in the mean annual cycle of the monsoon season with a delayed withdrawallinked to additional inputs of moisture from the Atlantic due to increasing thermal andmoisture contrasts between ocean and continent but also to a stronger contribution of moisturefluxes in September and October from the Mediterranean into the Sahel
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Sciences de la Terre. Université de Bourgogne, 2013. Français. <NNT : 2013DIJOS025>


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Paul-Arthur Monerie. Le changement climatique en région de mousson africaine : évolution des champs pluviométriques et atmosphériques dans les simulations CMIP3 et CMIP5 sous scénario A1B et rcp45 (1960-1999, 2031-2070). Sciences de la Terre. Université de Bourgogne, 2013. Français. <NNT : 2013DIJOS025>. <tel-00955371>

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