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Flux de 10Be en Antarctique durant les 800 000 dernières années et interprétation

Abstract : The polar ice cores, in addition to improving our understanding of the climate, give access to beryllium-10 (10Be) fallout, an isotope of cosmogenic origin created by the interaction of Galactic Cosmic Rays with the upper atmosphere. Its production rate depends on the intensity of the primary cosmic rays, which are modulated by solar activity and the Earth's magnetic field. 10Be therefore provides information on these two parameters. It has allowed, among others, the improvement of ice cores chronologies thanks to absolute stratigraphic markers linked to remarkable events of the geomagnetic field as the Laschamp excursion or the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal.EPICA Dome C (75° 06' S, 123° 21' E) is a 3270~m ice core drilled in East Antarctica. It offers a complete climate record over the last 800 000 years (kyr BP). In the framework of the PhD, 2200 10Be samples were measured between 2384 m (269 kyr BP) and 2627 m (355 kyr BP) deep. This continuous sequence provides, on the one hand, the opportunity to study the solar activity during the interglacial period of the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 9.3, where the resolution reaches ~20 years. Our results contrast with those during the Holocene, with the noted absence of the de Vries cycle (210 years) in our 10Be profile. On the other hand, this sequence allowed us to verify that the classical estimate of snow accumulation obtained by the dating models of ice cores is correct to within 20% during the succession of glacial – interglacial cycles.These measurements were combined with those previously performed under the responsibility of Grant Raisbeck (publication in preparation). This allows to dispose of a continuous and detailed profile (resolution: 20 to 250 years) between 200 and 800 kyr BP on the EPICA Dome C ice core. The observed 10Be flux variations compare well with changes in the intensity of the geomagnetic field recorded in marine sediments. From this observation, it is possible to propose a synchronization of these profiles in order to place them on a common age scale. The observed phase shifts between the rise of temperature in Antarctica (increase of D at EDC) and the rise of global sea level (decrease of marine 18O from marine sediments) do not exceed 3200, except at the Termination VII. The low resolution of the 18O records from marine sediments makes it difficult to analyze the phase shifts. The obtained results encourage to analyze more recent periods around Termination II, including the Blake and Iceland Basin geomagnetic excursions. Indeed, this would allow to constrain more strongly the synchronization between the paleomagnetic signal in marine sediments and the 10Be flux at EDC.
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Alexandre Cauquoin. Flux de 10Be en Antarctique durant les 800 000 dernières années et interprétation. Sciences de la Terre. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA112199⟩. ⟨tel-00954293⟩



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