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Exposition néonatale aux œstrogènes : effets sur leur métabolisme, le développement ovarien et la fonction de reproduction chez la ratte

Abstract : The ovary is not solely the unique source of oocytes necessary for fertilization but also a crucial conductor of endocrine regulations of the reproductive system. In the fetal ovary, oocytes grouped in clusters are surrounded by somatic pre-granulosa cells, altogether delineated by a basement membrane and constituting ovarian cords. The formation of the definitive ovarian functional units requires their fragmentation into follicles formed by a single oocyte surrounded by granulosa cells and delineated by a basement membrane. This partitioning occurs within a tiny period and is dependent on the correct timing of the meiotic process, on an apoptotic wave that specifically targets oocytes and the remodelling of the basement membrane. Follicle formation is a crucial event of ovarian development because the follicle stock formed at the end of this process is non-renewable. Therefore, any disturbance of this process can lead to reproductive abnormalities in adulthood. Recent data on endocrine disruptors displaying estrogenic activity have involved the fragile estrogenic homeostasis in the process. We aimed at better understanding how the endogen estrogen 17b-estradiol (E2) contributes to follicle formation. To assess it, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with E2 at different doses during follicle formation, /i.e./ in the 3 days following birth. We show that although this treatment impairs the development of the hepatic and ovarian detoxification systems, the female neonate is able to increase its estrogen clearance capabilities. Nevertheless, E2 treatment within this critical period triggers a dose-dependent decrease of oocyte number per ovary. Regardless of the E2 dose, puberty is advanced. All treated females are at least transiently fertile, yet these reproductive capabilities rapidly decline. A high (10 µg/day) dose of E2 leads to a secondary infertility characterized by anovulation that probably result from a dysfunction of the whole reproductive tract. By contrast, a lower (0.1 µg/day) dose of E2, that does not significantly modify neonatal oocyte survival, leads to a progressive reproductive senescence likely due to ovarian failure. Long-term troubles may originate from precocious E2 impact on the ovary since it disturbs ovarian transcriptome and produces many lesions on ovarian cell DNA.
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Clémentine Chalmey. Exposition néonatale aux œstrogènes : effets sur leur métabolisme, le développement ovarien et la fonction de reproduction chez la ratte. Sciences agricoles. Université Rennes 1, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013REN1S107⟩. ⟨tel-00953657⟩

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