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Caractérisation de métabolites oxygénés issus de l’acide alpha-linolénique : Effets anti-agrégants et anti-inflammatoires

Abstract : N-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), play an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. One metabolite of DHA, protectin DX (PDX), an isomer of protectin D1 (PD1) (Chen P et al., 2009),possesses inhibits blood platelet aggregation. Similar compounds called "poxytrins", which have a conjugated triene with a E,Z,E geometry have also been synthesized from other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) by soybean lipoxygenase. They have anti-aggregating properties by inhibiting platelet cyclooxygenase and thromboxane A2 receptor (Chen P et al., 2011). In this thesis, we describe new dihydroxy compounds synthesized by the soybean 15-lipoxygenase from alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), an essential PUFA that is consumed in the gram range in human adults . It is converted into monohydroxylated and dihydroxylated derivatives. These compounds were separated by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after appropriate derivatization. A main monohydroxylated fatty acid, 13(S)-octadecatrienoic acid (13(S)-OH-18:3) and four dihydroxylated fatty acids were detected. The last ones have all a characteristic UV spectrum with a maximum absorbance at 270 nm with two shoulder peaks at 260 and 280 nm. The UV spectra from two of them are superimposable to that of PDX, suggesting a E,Z,E geometry for their conjugated triene. The complete characterization of these compounds was performed by high field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and by GC-MS. These are the 9(R),16(S)-dihydroxy-octadeca-10E,12E,14E-trienoic, 9(S),16(S)-dihydroxy-octadeca-10E,12E,14E-trienoic, 9(S),16(S)-dihydroxy-octadeca-10E,12Z,14E-trienoic and 9(R),16(S)-dihydroxy-octadeca-10E,12Z,14E-trienoic acids. They can also be synthesized by the (type 2) 15 human recombinant lipoxygenase. These dihydroxylated compounds (9,16-diHOTEs)were tested on isolated human blood platelets. We observed that only molecules containing a conjugated triene with a E,Z,E geometry are able to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by collagen, and inhibit sheep cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1). The anti-inflammatory properties of these products were also studied. All 9,16-diHOTEs isomers having a conjugated triene with a E,Z,E geometry, inhibit human recombinant cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and only 9(R),16(S)-dihydroxy-octadeca-10E,12Z,14E-trienoic acid inhibits polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) 5-lipoxygenase which is involved in the leukotriene synthesis from arachidonic acid. In conclusion, the E,Z,E dihydroxlated compounds from 18:3n-3, as well as PDX, inhibiting the COX-1 and 2 activities appear to be anti-aggregatory and anti-inflammatory agents. These results provide pharmacological perspectives to nutritional recommendations promoting the intake of alpha-linolenic acid.
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Submitted on : Thursday, February 27, 2014 - 5:02:08 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00952895, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 329427

Citation

Miao Liu. Caractérisation de métabolites oxygénés issus de l’acide alpha-linolénique : Effets anti-agrégants et anti-inflammatoires. Sciences agricoles. INSA de Lyon, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013ISAL0059⟩. ⟨tel-00952895⟩

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