Apports de la microscopie biphotonique intravitale pulmonaire à l'étude de la physiopathologie de la maladie du charbon

Abstract : Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a major bioterrorism pathogen mainly because it can lead to a severe respiratory form of the disease. This form results from inhalation of spores, whose ways of entry into the lungs are not fully understood. This thesis reports the contribution of confocal and two-photon microscopy to the study of the penetration mechanisms of inhaled spores. The animal model utilized was CX3CR1+/gfp mouse, which constitutively expresses the green fluorescent protein (GFP) on CD11b+ dendritic cells (DCs). First, we present an automated method allowing discrimination of DCs among other GFP expressing cells, based on a morphologic coefficient. This method was then applied to the study of the specific behavior of CD11b DCs, after infection by B. anthracis spores. The microscopic study was first performed in situ, i.e. on explanted organs kept in conditions favorable to cell dynamics, then in vivo, i.e. on anesthetized and ventilated mice. In this case the imaging protocol profits from both acquisition and post-processing strategies, and allowed overcoming the focalization pitfalls coming from chest movements during ventilation. This novel strategy is based on an over-sampling of frame acquisition and utilizes second harmonic generation signal from alveolar collagen as a spatial reference. It led to the first ever in vivo observation of interactions between DCs and macrophages at the lung level. These immunological synapse-like structures are promoted by infection and thus display a functional role unknown until now. The formation of macrophages-DCs immunological synapses not only could represent a missing-link in figuring out the B. anthracis spore penetration mechanisms at the lung level, but more importantly could lead to a better understanding of the immune response associated with pulmonary infections.
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Daniel Fiole. Apports de la microscopie biphotonique intravitale pulmonaire à l'étude de la physiopathologie de la maladie du charbon. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université de Grenoble, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013GRENY008⟩. ⟨tel-00952722⟩

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