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Analyse de la diversité moléculaire de populations d'abeilles de la lignée ouest-méditerranéenne (Apis mellifera mellifera) dans le but de la conservation

Abstract : The honeybee species (Apis mellifera, L.) is divided in four evolutionary lineages (M: West-Mediterranean, A: African, C: North-Mediterranean and O: Oriental). These lineages are also divided in, at least, 26 subspecies which show a very high geographical structure. This structure is the result of more than thousand years of evolution (from the last Ice Ages to nowadays).Among the different subspecies, one is naturally found in France and Northern Europe: Apis mellifera mellifera (A. m. mellifera), also known as the Black Honeybee.For many reasons, non local subspecies, belonging to the C evolutionary lineage, have been imported in France since the beginning of the sixties.These massive importations result in the tendency of losing of the Apis mellifera geographical repartition and could lead to the loss of the local subspecies (A. m. mellifera) and its specific traits.Many A. m. mellifera conservatories, managed by beekeepers, have been initiated in Europe to compensate the importation effects on the subspecies. However, no specifications, combining a scientific approach and beekeeping, regarding the setup and monitoring of a conservation center have been proposed.The present study genetically characterized and validated, by the analysis of drone congregation areas, different European conservatories.A protocol regarding the setup and, scientific and beekeeping, monitoring of conservation centers have been proposed.Finally, a preliminary study, regarding the specific honeybee mating system and its implication on conservation programs, has been initiated in the Ile-de-France region.This thesis presents interesting results.First, the conservatories analyzed show a level of introgression, by C lineage, low enough and a genetic diversity high enough to be validated as A. m. mellifera conservation centers. But, the introgression cannot increase, and/or the genetic diversity cannot decrease, these criterions are indeed necessary for any Black Honeybee conservation center.Second, the geographical isolation of conservatories is not needed, it could even be not recommended because of the possible loss of genetic diversity implied, to set up conservation centers. However, it is really important to genetically characterize the colonies surrounding the conservatory. This is, indeed, needed to estimate and limit the risk of introgression by non local colonies.Different hypotheses proposed is this thesis do not corroborate the conclusions of previous studies on A. mellifera.It seems that drones do not go to the closest drone congregation. But the question whether they go to another congregation or they do not have the same probability to join a congregation is not answer. This analysis has to be more precisely considered in further studies.The most striking result is the possible presence of feral swarms in the Ile-de-France region. These swarms were supposed to have disappeared because of the invasion of the parasite Varroa destructor in Europe. However, this new and interesting hypothesis has to be confirmed by more precise analyses. Nevertheless, the occurrence of feral swarms would be very encouraging for the conservation of A. m. mellifera, but also for the conservation of the whole species.
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Bénédicte Bertrand. Analyse de la diversité moléculaire de populations d'abeilles de la lignée ouest-méditerranéenne (Apis mellifera mellifera) dans le but de la conservation. Sciences agricoles. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA112113⟩. ⟨tel-00951288⟩

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