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Impact du paysage sur la distribution spatiale et génétique des colonies de petits rhinolophes

Abstract : The lesser horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hipposideros was formerly widespread and quite common in north-western Europe, but has undergone a dramatic decline from the 1960s. Habitat reduction and fragmentation have been suggested as main factors explaining the decline of this species. Following this assumption, we expected habitat connectivity to influence the spatial distribution of the maternity roosts. We firstly characterized the functional connectivity of the bat's habitat and modeled the distribution of its colonies in Franche-Comté region (France). We applied a landscape graph-based approach to extract several patch-level metrics representing the functional connectivity of the landscape at different spatial scales. Results showed that, at local scale, roost's presence depends on the availability of wooded elements near small built areas. At broader scale, roost's presence depends on their spatial integration into a connected network allowing exchanges of individuals among them. Restricted gene flows among colonies due to the heterogeneous distribution of maternity roosts may lead to genetic differentiation between distant colonies. Based on bat droppings sampling and using eight microsatellite loci, we secondly examined the genetic differentiation of maternity colony at regional scale according to landscape structure. Despite strong female philopatry our results emphasized a weak genetic structure within maternity colonies. This genetic structure was neither related to isolation by distance nor to landscape measures. We could conclude that the Franche-Comté region presents a good overall connectivity for the lesser horseshoe bat. Our results also suggest that genetic exchanges occurred between geographically closed colonies, probably due to male dispersal events. Inter-colony gene flows might occur during mating in the fall, just before males and females gathering in winter roosts.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00949390
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Submitted on : Wednesday, April 2, 2014 - 3:11:12 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, January 13, 2022 - 11:58:04 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Wednesday, July 2, 2014 - 12:16:05 PM

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  • HAL Id : tel-00949390, version 1

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Pierline Tournant. Impact du paysage sur la distribution spatiale et génétique des colonies de petits rhinolophes. Géographie. Université de Franche-Comté, 2013. Français. ⟨tel-00949390⟩

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