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Conception et réactivité de complexes mono- et polymétalliques d'éléments f en bas degré d'oxydation

Abstract : Beyond its importance in nuclear industry the redox chemistry uranium is attracting increasinginterest because complexes of low-valent uranium can promote unusual reductive chemistrythrough unusual reaction pathways, including attractive examples of CO, CO2, N2, arenes andazides activation in mild condition. Due to the unique coordination and bonding properties ofuranium, its compounds could provide an attractive alternative to transition metals for thecatalytic transformation of small molecules. However, metal-based multi-electron processesremain uncommon in uranium chemistry especially in comparison with the d-block metals, thechemistry of low-valent uranium being dominated by single-electron transfers. In this context, thefirst aim of this project was to investigate the association of low-valent uranium to a non-innocentligand acting as an independent electron reservoir at a same molecule. Accordingly, weinterrogated the use of highly p-delocalized Schiff bases ligands for supporting low-valent uraniumchemistry. This led to the isolation of electron-rich complexes which are stabilized by storingelectrons on the ligands through the formation of C-C bonds. Interestingly, these C-C bonds can becleaved by oxidizing agents and the electrons released to participate in multi-electron redoxreactions. This process was observed within different Schiff-base ligand scaffolds, allowing atuning of the properties of the compounds. The second part of this work was dedicated to thesynthesis of novel trivalent uranium complexes supported by siloxy ligands and the study of theirredox reactivity and coordination properties. Novel dinuclear highly-reactive low-valent uraniumassemblies were developed. The study of their limited stability revealed that these compounds arespontaneously decomposing through the cleavage of tBu groups from the supporting ligandsresulting in the formation of U(IV) species. In parallel, a mononuclear trivalent uranium atecomplex was obtained, allowing to compare the reactivity of U(III) in different steric and electronicenvironements. Hence we became interested in studying the redox reactivity of these compoundswith different substrates including CO2, CS2, azides and arenes. These investigations led to thestabilization of a rare CS22- sandwich complex of uranium, and highlited the ability of U(III) topromote reductive disproportionation of CO2 to carbonate and CO. The reaction of these trivalenturanium siloxide species with organic and inorganic azides produced original uranium imidos andnitridos compounds with original topologies. Finally the capacity of these strongly reducing agentsto transfer electrons to the toluene fragment lead to the isolation of a family of arenes invertedsandwich complexes.
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Clément Camp. Conception et réactivité de complexes mono- et polymétalliques d'éléments f en bas degré d'oxydation. Sciences agricoles. Université de Grenoble, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013GRENV023⟩. ⟨tel-00949379⟩

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