Erythropoïèse normale et pathologique, internalisation de c-Kit et morphologie du nucléole

Abstract : Erythropoiesis is the process leading to the production of red blood cells from hematopoietic stem cell. The erythroid differentiation involves morphological cell changes, in part related to the loss of membrane expression of the type III receptor tyrosine kinase, c-Kit. In response to its ligand SCF, c-Kit is activated, then internalized and degraded by the proteasome pathway via the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl, or by the lysosomal pathway, after endocytosis. In the first part of this work, we demonstrated that in the absence of SCF and in response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib, erythroblasts cultured ex vivo, lose membrane expression of c-Kit and accelerate their terminal differentiation. In view of these observations, we sought to understand the mechanisms involved. On an erythropoietin dependent cell line expressing c-Kit at the membrane, we showed that imatinib induces receptor internalization and degradation by the lysosomal pathway, independently of c -Cbl. Furthermore, we showed that this effect is reversible and that imatinib does not block the c-Kit re-expression after its internalization, in response to SCF. Metabolic labelling showed that imatinib does not alter synthesis or maturation of c -Kit and that the phospho-tyrosine profile of cells treated with imatinib is generally unchanged. Finally, we showed that the binding of imatinib to the catalytic pocket of c-Kit is essential for its internalization, and therefore its degradation. So, it appears that imatinib removes c-Kit self-inhibition, which seems necessary to its retention at the membrane. In the second part of this work, we studied the morphological changes of nucleoli, the site of ribosome biogenesis, during erythroid differentiation. We showed that the reduction of cell size takes place at the same time than reduction of cell proliferation and reduction of surface and volume of the Granular Compound (GC), the “matrix” of the nucleolus. Moreover, we showed by electronic microscopy, the persistence of GC at the end of maturation. Finally, we also studied the evolution of nucleoli in a pathological context of low risk myelodysplastic syndromes, which are characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis. We observed that immature pathological cells have larger GC than immature normal cells, but that during differentiation, the morphology of nucleoli is identical between normal and pathological cells. In conclusion, this work has allowed us to describe 1) the mechanisms of internalization of a class III receptor tyrosine kinase, c-Kit by imatinib and 2) the morphology of the nucleolus during normal and pathological low risk myelodysplastic syndromes of erythroid differentiation.
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Diane d' Allard. Erythropoïèse normale et pathologique, internalisation de c-Kit et morphologie du nucléole. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA05S026⟩. ⟨tel-00948122⟩

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