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Etude des réactions mettant en jeu l'oxygène dans un système électrochimique lithium-air aqueux rechargeable électriquement

Abstract : The electrochemical lithium-air devices are emerging concepts and their very high theoretical performances have attracted a lot of attention, especially for an application in the electrical vehicle. A target of at least 500 Wh kg-1 is aimed for. The aqueous lithium-air devices have not yet been studied in detail which is not the case for the anhydrous lithium-air technology. This thesis firstly deals with the development of an aqueous lithium-air cell based on a three electrodes setup, and secondly attempts to improve our theoretical knowledge of these systems. This study particularly focuses on the positive compartment of the cell in which oxygen reactions occur. The first section is dedicated to the development of an oxygen evolution electrode made of 316L stainless steel. The study shows its ability to catalyze the oxygen evolution reaction as well its good stability over 3 000 hours of operation. Nevertheless, major problems of catalysis were observed and assigned to the presence of lithium ions in the electrolyte. Li+ ions inhibit the electrochemical oxidation of the active sites, which are needed for the electrocatalytic properties. The behavior of an air cathode was characterized in the same medium. The results show two important phenomena which reduces the electrode performance and which are also attributed to lithium ions : a deactivation of the (MnIII/MnIV) transition and a stabilization of the oxygenated groups at the carbon surface. Finally, an optimization of the electrolytic system was proposed by limiting the Li+ ions activity in solution, which improves the charge/discharge potential efficiency of the battery.
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Submitted on : Monday, February 17, 2014 - 1:02:00 AM
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Florian Moureaux. Etude des réactions mettant en jeu l'oxygène dans un système électrochimique lithium-air aqueux rechargeable électriquement. Autre. Université de Grenoble, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011GRENI061⟩. ⟨tel-00947541⟩



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