Understanding, Modeling and Detecting Brain Tumors: Graphical Models and Concurrent Segmentation/Registration methods

Abstract : The main objective of this thesis is the automatic modeling, understanding and segmentation of diffusively infiltrative tumors known as Diffuse Low-Grade Gliomas. Two approaches exploiting anatomical and spatial prior knowledge have been proposed. We first present the construction of a tumor specific probabilistic atlas describing the tumors' preferential locations in the brain. The proposed atlas constitutes an excellent tool for the study of the mechanisms behind the genesis of the tumors and provides strong spatial cues on where they are expected to appear. The latter characteristic is exploited in a Markov Random Field based segmentation method where the atlas guides the segmentation process as well as characterizes the tumor's preferential location. Second, we introduce a concurrent tumor segmentation and registration with missing correspondences method. The anatomical knowledge introduced by the registration process increases the segmentation quality, while progressively acknowledging the presence of the tumor ensures that the registration is not violated by the missing correspondences without the introduction of a bias. The method is designed as a hierarchical grid-based Markov Random Field model where the segmentation and registration parameters are estimated simultaneously on the grid's control point. The last contribution of this thesis is an uncertainty-driven adaptive sampling approach for such grid-based models in order to ensure precision and accuracy while maintaining robustness and computational efficiency. The potentials of both methods have been demonstrated on a large data-set of heterogeneous Diffuse Low-Grade Gliomas. The proposed methods go beyond the scope of the presented clinical context due to their strong modularity and could easily be adapted to other clinical or computer vision problems.
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Sarah Parisot. Understanding, Modeling and Detecting Brain Tumors: Graphical Models and Concurrent Segmentation/Registration methods. Engineering Sciences [physics]. Ecole Centrale Paris, 2013. English. ⟨tel-00944541v2⟩

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