L’immunité innée dans le diabète sucré

Abstract : The type 1 diabetes ( T1D ) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of β cells in the pancreas by autoreactive T lymphocytes. During my thesis, we are interested in the role of cells of innate immunity in T1D using a mouse model of the disease: NOD mice. In contrast to cells of the adaptive system (T and B lymphocytes ) cells of innate immunity is the first line of defense of the body during infection . This population consists of neutrophils , among other , plasmacytoid dendritic cells ( pDC ) , macrophages , T lymphocytes but not conventional B as iNKT cells and B -1a.Previously, our laboratory has highlighted the role of iNKT cells in the development of T1D . During the first part of my thesis , we demonstrated that iNKT17 cells, a subpopulation of iNKT cells, have a deleterious role in T1D in NOD mice . These cells infiltrate the pancreas and there produce IL -17 , a proinflammatory cytokine. Through transfer experiments , we demonstrated that lymphocytes iNKT17 exacerbate disease through the production of IL-17 . In the second part of my thesis , we investigated the mechanisms that induce the activation of autoreactive T lymphocytes. We observed in NOD mice , the physiological death of β cells leads to activation of innate immunity cells : neutrophils, lymphocytes B- 1a and pDCs . The cooperation between these cells leads to activation of pDC that produce IFNa . This cytokine activates autoreactive T cells which will destroy the β cells of the pancreas. Our results show that innate immunity is an important player in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus.
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Yannick Simoni. L’immunité innée dans le diabète sucré. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA05T074⟩. ⟨tel-00944309⟩

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