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Amélioration des connaissances sur le colmatage des systèmes d’infiltration d’eaux pluviales

Abstract : Infiltration systems are widely used in urban stormwater management. Infiltration systems can significantly reduce stormwater discharges to sewer systems and may therefore contribute to the mitigation of flooding problems. In addition infiltrations systems also help to reduce stormwater pollution, contribute to groundwater recharge and to water course protection. However, the hydraulic performance of infiltration systems decreases with time due to clogging effects. A clogged layer limits the transfer of water and pollutants in infiltrations systems. The clogging has a significant impact on the long-term performance of a system. The aim of this PhD study is to better understand spatio-temporal evolution of clogging on large infiltration systems involving different scales: (i) global scale, (ii) semi - global (the whole bottom and the sides), (iii) local scale (different part of the bottom). An experimental approach has been carried out in the OTHU project (Field Observatory on Urban Hydrology, www.othu.org). An infiltration basin studied with three investigations scales under real operation conditions. In a global scale, the temporal clogging evolution of the system was evaluated in terms of hydraulic resistance. This clogging indicator was calibrated from Bouwer’s model. Water inflow, TSS, COD, climatic factors (air temperature and solar energy), stormwater events and season variations were measured. The results describe the clogging evolution over 8 years. It indicates that vegetation may have a beneficial effect on infiltration capacity. In a semi global scale study, clogging evolution at the bottom and the sides, of the infiltration basin was evaluated. It proved that the clogging mainly occurs at the bottom, that is, the bottom was clogged fast and the clogging at the sides was slow. Local scale study, spatial distribution and temporal evolution of clogging at the bottom with in situ measurements during 2 years were investigated. The study characterised the clogged layer, with bio physic-chemical parameters (i.e., were investigated hydraulic conductivity, porosity, grain size, dry bulk density, organic matter and biomass content). This analyze compared also the role of different types of spontaneous vegetation. The result showed the high spatio-temporal heterogeneity on the infiltration surface. Statistical analysis of clogging evolution in each scale showed the significant impacts of biological activity in the stormwater infiltration basins, which was often neglected
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Carolina Gonzalez-Merchan. Amélioration des connaissances sur le colmatage des systèmes d’infiltration d’eaux pluviales. Autre. INSA de Lyon, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012ISAL0040⟩. ⟨tel-00943422⟩

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