La mortalité liée aux crues torrentielles dans le Sud de la France: une approche de la vulnérabilité humaine face à l'inondation

Abstract : For 25 years, more than 200 people have died in Southern France due to flooding (Vaison -la-Romaine in 1992, Aude in 1999, Gard in 2002, Var in 2010 ...). Preserving populations appears to be a government priority, however we still lack a comprehensive characterization of the vulnerability of people face to hydrometeorological phenomena. This thesis assumes that the mortality from natural disasters is not accidental. It reflects structural and circumstantial vulnerabilities. The detailed analysis of the circumstances of death and profiles of victims highlights the factors that determine mortality in this phenomena and help to improve disaster prepearedness. This work is based largely on the building of a georeferenced database for the period 1988-2011 addressing the places, the circumstances of death and the profile of the victims. The study area covers the Mediterranean France departments prone to flash floods from the Pyrenees-Orientales to the Ardeche and Var. The analysis relativizes a "supposed" vulnerability (women, childrens, elderly...). For major flooding (more than ten deaths) totaling 2/3 of losses of life, the deaths at home are most numerous. The circumstances of death let appear a sustained vulnerability to human exposure (eg. unsuitable buildings) or structural vulnerability to people's ability to resist water. In contrast, for small events, less deadly but mor recurring exudes a vulnerability more "active" which translates risk behaviors, conscious or unconscious, particularly related to displacements. The third part of the thesis considers the levers prevention able to reduce loss of life. A good knowledge of the circumstances of death and factors explaining mortality from Mediterranean floods used to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of risk management measures and suggests the potential of "avoidable deaths" targeting prevention adequate.
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Laurent Boissier. La mortalité liée aux crues torrentielles dans le Sud de la France: une approche de la vulnérabilité humaine face à l'inondation. Géographie. Université Paul Valéry - Montpellier III, 2013. Français. ⟨tel-00940888⟩

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