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Theses

Algorithmes pour l'étude de la structure secondaire des ARN et l'alignement de séquences

Abstract : This thesis concerns the design and study of algorithms, on the one hand to predict the thermodynamic quantities and the secondary structure of RNA, the other for sequence alignment.In the first part, we apply a Monte Carlo algorithm to approximate the density of states for secondary structures of a given RNA sequence, and for hybridizations of two RNA sequences. We first show that the density estimated by our program is as good as the exact density, and the execution time of our program is much faster. We then calculate the melting temperature for a hybridization of two RNA sequences. We show that our melting temperatures are closer to experimental values than the other two programs.Then in the second part, we implement a dynamic programming algorithm that generates sub-optimal structures, mainly dedicated to the prediction of functional structures of riboswitchs. We first apply our program on a TPP riboswitch in which we were able to detect both functional structures. We then show that the structures predicted by our program are closer to the real structure compared to five other existing programs, on a sample of purine riboswitch.Finally, in the third part, we present a novel algorithm to produce sub-optimal pairwise alignments. We first compare our alignments to those produced by the algorithm of Needdleman-Wunsch. We predict more reference alignments than the algorithm of Needdleman-Wunsch. We then calculate the frequencies and position-specific entropies from our sub-optimal alignments. We show that entropies calculated from our program are more correlated than other programs with locations in the core block of BAliBASE reference alignments.
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Feng Lou. Algorithmes pour l'étude de la structure secondaire des ARN et l'alignement de séquences. Autre [cs.OH]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA112016⟩. ⟨tel-00939860⟩

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