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Nouveaux matériaux riches en Mg pour le stockage d’hydrogène : composés Mg6Pd1-xMTx (MT = Ni, Ag, Cu) massifs et nanoconfinés et nanocomposites MgH2-TiH2

Abstract : This thesis is dedicated to the study of novel magnesium-rich compounds for solid state hydrogen storage. The aim is to destabilize Mg hydride and accelerate its sorption kinetics by alloying and nanostructuration. The first family of compounds concerns the Mg6Pd1-xTMx (TM = Ni, Ag, Cu) pseudo-binary phases. Their structural properties and the effects of Pd substitution have been studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analyses. Their thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogenation have been determined by solid-gas reaction. Different hydrogenation mechanisms take place depending on the substituting element. The stability of the metal-hydrogen system is altered by the nature of the phases formed during hydrogenation reaction. Thus, metal to hydride transformation is characterized by at least two absorption plateau pressures. The pressure of the first plateau is similar to that of Mg/MgH2 while the second one occurs at higher pressure. The enthalpy and entropy of reaction are determined to quantify the destabilizing effect of Pd by TM substitution. Best desorption kinetics are found for the Ni containing alloy thanks to the catalytic effect of the Mg2NiH4 phase formed on hydrogenation. The second approach aims to combine alloying with nanostructuration effects. Nanoparticles of Mg6Pd as small as 3 nm are confined into nanoporous carbon matrix. By comparing their hydrogenation properties with those of the bulk alloy, we demonstrate that not only the (de)hydrogenation kinetics are much faster for the nanoparticles, but also that their hydrided state is destabilized. Finally, MgH2-TiH2 nanocomposites were synthesized by mechanical milling under reactive atmosphere. The addition of a catalyst (TiH2) and Mg nanostructuration allow strongly accelerating the sorption kinetics of hydrogen in Mg. To understand the role of the TiH2 phase on the outstanding kinetics of these nanocomposites, their structural properties have been determined by X-ray and neutron diffraction. The existence of a coherent interface between Mg and TiH2 phases is of major importance to facilitate H-mobility within the nanocomposite. Furthermore, it is shown that the TiH2 inclusions inhibit the Mg/MgH2 grain growth, thus maintaining the composites nanostructure during their cycling
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Marine Ponthieu. Nouveaux matériaux riches en Mg pour le stockage d’hydrogène : composés Mg6Pd1-xMTx (MT = Ni, Ag, Cu) massifs et nanoconfinés et nanocomposites MgH2-TiH2. Autre. Université Paris-Est, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PEST1139⟩. ⟨tel-00939180⟩

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