Protéome salivaire et sensibilité à l'amertume chez l'Homme

Abstract : Bitterness is present in every day beverages (e.g. coffee) and foods (e.g. vegetables such as cruciferous plants). However, bitterness is perceived differently among individuals and some foods considered as healthy may be rejected due to their bitter taste. Several genetic (eg. genetic polymorphism of bitter taste receptors) or environmental (eg. age, medications) factors partly explain the interindividual variability in bitterness perception. However, other peri-receptor factors may intervene, in particular salivary composition. First, in order to investigate the link between salivary proteome and sensitivity to bitterness, the detection threshold to the bitter taste of caffeine was measured in 29 male healthy subjects. Their resting saliva was studied by one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis. Two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed that 26 out of 255 spots were significantly different between the 6 hypersensitive and 6 hyposensitive subjects to the bitter taste of caffeine. Identification of the 26 spots revealed an overexpression of amylase-, serum albumin-, and immunoglobulin A fragments, and an underexpression of cystatin SN in hypersensitive subjects. The latter finding was confirmed by Western blotting. These results have led to formulate an hypothesis on the role of in-mouth proteolysis in bitterness perception. Second, in order to study the effect of bitter molecules on salivary composition, an in vitro study was performed on undifferentiated and differentiated human salivary cell line HSG. After setting the experimental conditions for HSG cell differentiation (culture in 3D conditions), cystatin SN was detected in HSG cells by Western blot after treatment with caffeine, quinine, and urea. After cell exposure with caffeine at 5, 50 and 100 µM, quantification by ELISA demonstrated that cystatin SN was always more abundant in differentiated vs undifferentiated HSG cells. Specifically in differentiated cells, caffeine exposure resulted in over-expression of cystatin SN, 50µM inducing the highest effect. Cystatin SN was also detected in culture media of the HSG cells
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Sciences agricoles. Université de Bourgogne, 2012. Français. <NNT : 2012DIJOS099>
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Micheline Dsamou. Protéome salivaire et sensibilité à l'amertume chez l'Homme. Sciences agricoles. Université de Bourgogne, 2012. Français. <NNT : 2012DIJOS099>. <tel-00935220>




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