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Système mixte agriculture irriguée et élevage transhumant : l'enjeu autour de l'accès aux ressources foncières dans la moyenne vallée du fleuve Sénégal

Abstract : In the development of the Senegal River Valley and more precisely irrigated agriculture, pastoralist populations put forward a set of strategies to strengthen family farms. Since the 1970-1980 drought crises the situation of nomadic livestock as well as sustainability challenges in the valley continues to deteriorate, due to the reduction of rangeland. This work aims to understand the survival strategies adopted by farmers to keep their farms viable. Survey work in 41 farm managers was used to analyze the logic of agricultural diversification and land capitalization among Fulani Walwalbé. To face to the expansion of Irrigated Village Perimeters, ranchers have chosen to strengthen their practice of irrigated agriculture to vary their sources of income and have better access to postharvest lands. Farmers in rural communities of Gamadji and Guede towns located in the middle valley are very present in irrigated production systems. In addition to the rain fed cereal production, the several modes of land tenure permit them to speculate on profitable horticulture, such as vegetable crops (tomato and onion). Irrigated agriculture also provides breeders the privilege to access to post- harvest lands. Their presence in the Waalo land is also a means of ensuring their traditional land rights on these lands. Thus the practice of irrigated agriculture meets financial and property logic. While farming practice does not allow Fulani herders have access to land, irrigated agriculture appears as a strategy to move away from land capitalization. The joint practice of irrigated agriculture and livestock transhumance has encouraged the emergence of an agro-pastoral area around Podor made of: golf recession, post-crop lands, water points, transhumance pathways.... However, transhumance movements remain the central practice among Fulani herders of the middle valley and long displacement periods still possible.
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Ibrahima Faye Diouf. Système mixte agriculture irriguée et élevage transhumant : l'enjeu autour de l'accès aux ressources foncières dans la moyenne vallée du fleuve Sénégal. Géographie. Université Toulouse le Mirail - Toulouse II, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013TOU20084⟩. ⟨tel-00935092⟩

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