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Optimisation des propriétés (physiques, mécaniques et hydriques) de bétons de chanvre par la maîtrise de la formulation

Abstract : Buildings strongly affect environment through energy and raw consumption. In order to reduce these impacts, the use of biobased building materials, like hempconcrete appears as a relevant solution. Hemp based composites lead to specific hygrothermal behavior limiting energy needs of buildings and insuring a good felt comfort level. These non load bearing materials are used as filling material for various applications (Wall, Floor, Roof) and as insulating rendering. This phD Thesis supports the ANR project « BetonChanvre » and concerns the optimization of the formulation in link with manufacturing process of the industrial partners and the characterization ofthese materials. Several kinds of hemp shiv (with and without fibers, with water repellant treatment) and of binders (lime, calcium sulfate) are used. The proposed formulation derives from reference formulations given by industrial partners. The physical characteristics of the studied materials (apparent density, bulk density, total and open porosity) are measured. The hydric properties are quantified under steady-state through sorption isotherms (adsorption/desorption) and water vapor permeability. The sorption curves are measured following the discontinuous method at successive stages of increasing, and then decreasing, relative humidity. The water vapour permeability is measured with the cup method. Several sets of relative humidities are considered in order to study the variation of permeability versus humidity. The hydric diffusivity is calculated from the fitting of the sorption curve and of the water vapor permeability. Finally, the characterization of mechanical performances is given from the compression strength, from the strain modulus (apparent and elastic) and from the residualstrength for 15% of strain. The impact of ageing and carbonation on hydric and mechanical characteristics isestimated on specimens carbonated with CO2 incubator. The data treatment allows identifying several formulations rules for such kind of bio-based composite, in link with the expected hydric and mechanical performances. Results highlight that only the mix of shiv with mineral binder allows to reach the optimalperformances. Despite, the formulations for mechanical or hydric optimum don’t met.N°
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Julien Chamoin. Optimisation des propriétés (physiques, mécaniques et hydriques) de bétons de chanvre par la maîtrise de la formulation. Autre. INSA de Rennes, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013ISAR0016⟩. ⟨tel-00934732⟩

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