Evolution et habitabilité de systèmes planétaires autour d’étoiles de faible masse et de naines brunes

Abstract : The discovery of more than 900 planets orbiting other stars than our Sun makes this period very exciting. Our knowledge which was based on the Solar System has been challenged by new planetary systems which are very different from our system. Some of them are much more compact than the Solar System. Some planets are located extremely close-in from their star, within the orbital distance of Mercury, in a region where tidal effects are important. Understanding the structure of the known exoplanetary systems and the future ones requires to take into account the physics of tidal evolution.The missions dedicated to the finding of exoplanets are beginning to detect less massive planets in the habitable zone of their host star. The habitable zone is here defined as the range of orbital distances where a planet with an atmosphere can sustain liquid water at its surface. The study of the climate of exoplanets, given a stellar flux and spectra, is important for the characterization of planetary atmosphere – which JWST will make possible.This thesis provides a study of the dynamical and tidal evolution of planetary systems orbiting evolving brown dwarfs and low mass stars in order to constrain some tidal parameters and in the case of planets around brown dwarfs put some constrains on observability. First, I studied the tidal evolution of single-planet systems orbiting a brown dwarf, a M-dwarf or a Sun-like star whose radius evolution is taken into account. The aim of this study was to study the influence of the contraction of the brown dwarf or star on the orbital evolution of the planets. Second, I endeavored to study the tidal evolution of multiple-planet systems orbiting a brown dwarf, a M-dwarf or a Sun-like star whose radius evolution is also taken into account.These two projects allow me to study the question of the habitability of planets orbiting those objects, in particular orbiting brown dwarfs which are known to cool down with time. A planet orbiting a brown dwarf in its habitable zone is sufficiently close to the brown dwarf to feel tidal effects. So parameters such as the eccentricity or obliquity, which are important for the climate are partially determined by tides. In this thesis, this question is briefly addressed but will be deepened in a future post-doc.
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Emeline Bolmont. Evolution et habitabilité de systèmes planétaires autour d’étoiles de faible masse et de naines brunes. Autre. Université Sciences et Technologies - Bordeaux I, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013BOR14897⟩. ⟨tel-00933668⟩

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