Effets de perturbateurs endocriniens sur le développement du squelette

Abstract : Environmental pollutants, particularly Endocrine Disruptors (ED), show effects on multiple targets at very low doses. Mostly known effects target reproductive organs. Very few studies are conducted on skeleton, although cartilage and bone are under potent hormonal control, from fetal stage, where hormonal system takes place, until aging, through birth stage (thyroid hormones, growth hormones), puberty and menopause for women (steroid hormones). The aim of this work is to study effects of anti-androgenic pollutants (vinclozolin, V, and its active metabolite M2) or xenoestrogens (genistein, G; bisphenol A, BPA), in vivo on Wistar rat skeletal development and in vitro on chondrogenic differenciation markers.In vivo effects were studied at doses below the “No Observed Adverse Effect Levels” (NOAEL) established by European and American agencies (EFSA and US EPA respectively). Female Wistar rats were exposed to V and G alone, in combination (GV) and/or associated to BPA (BGV), from pups conception until weaning (d30) or sacrifice (d30, d110). Effects were investigated on offsprings from different mothers and litters, on four animals by treatment, age and gender. In vitro effects of M2 metabolite of Vinclozolin, combined or not to G and BPA, were studied on chondrogenic markers expression using : 1) inducible murine stem-cells model towards chondrogenesis (C1) to sudy effects on early chondrogenic differentiation and 2) post-natal mouse differentiated chondrocytes, in primary culture or dedifferenciated chondrocytes by successive passages. Comparison with bFGF, a dedifferentiation factor for chondrocytes.Results : In vivo, exposure to V, alone or combined to G or BPA, induce discrete but palpable annealing in F1 treated female rat tails, in front of each intervertebral articulation. Xenoestrogens tend to decrease V effect. Male rats and F2 offsprings were not affected. Micro-CT Scan analysis shows significative increase of vertebrae inter transverse apophyses (ITA) distance, and decrease of vertebral body height in F1 female rats comparing to control animals. Anatomical modifications recall human collagen genetic diseases (epiphyseal dysplasias). They are absent in F1 male rats and F2 offsprings. Furthemore they are partly transient, ITA and height effects being present at d30 whereas ITA effect alone remains until d110. Histological analysis of vertebral body growth plate shows unbalance between proliferative and hypertrophic zones, which evokes estrogenic acceleration of cartilage maturation. Those effects are still transient and mainly observed in female rats. BPA activity is dominant above G and V effects. This result suggests ED can modulate growth plate cartilage differentiation, which was studied in vitro. In vitro : First, we aimed to evaluate eventual role of ED on the dynamic of the chondrogenic differentiation process. We show that M2 addition, alone or in combination with G or BPA, modifies collagen 2 maturation process without any effect on other markers (SOX9, Agrecan, COL10). M2 addition extends immature isoform COL2A expression and delays its replacement by mature isoform COL2B. Second, we studied the effects of ED on the regulation of COLA expression through the dedifferentiating process of chondrocytes in vitro. COL2A expression increases with cell dedifferenciation degree (successive passages) and double with M2, G and BPA. No other chondrogenic marker was modified. This effect depends on estrogen receptors (ER) and p38-MAPK pathway. (...)
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Thuy-Anh Auxiètre. Effets de perturbateurs endocriniens sur le développement du squelette. Sciences agricoles. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA05S015⟩. ⟨tel-00932800⟩

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