Régénération de la pulpe dentaire par ingénierie tissulaire : mise au point d’une «pulpe équivalente»

Abstract : The dental pulp is prone to severe injuries following a tooth decay or trauma. Conventional recommended therapy is the endodontic treatment, which consists in the removal of all of the dental pulp and filling of the pulp space with an inert material. This treatment leads to a weakening of the tooth and a greater susceptibility to infection.In this work, we have developed an alternative solution, proposing the replacement of the injuried dental pulp by an " pulp equivalent " consisting of mesenchymal stem cells from the pulp seeded in a collagen matrix . We tested this pulp substitut through a model of the molar pulpotomy in rats, ie. the removal of the entire parenchyma of the pulp chamber and preservation of the root vascular network and implantation of the pulp equivalent. Our aim was to determine the fate of pulp stem cells implanted in the tooth by nuclear imaging in the context of developing a cell therapy. The cells were labeled with 111Indium - oxine prior to their implantation. We have shown that the labelling had no effect on the viability and proliferation of pulp cells. The signal tracking was done by single photon emission tomography , coupled with a specific small animal scanner ( NanoSPECT / CT , Bioscan ) weekly for 3 weeks. We demonstrated that the intensity of SPECT signal was directly related to the integrity of the cells, since the lysed labeled cells by isotonic shock showed a rapid decrease in the intensity of labeling . Due to the sensitivity of the chosen imaging method , we have shown the absence of major diffusion cells into the bloodstream from the site of implantation, which could result in a risk of ectopic mineralization related to the implementation of mesenchymal stem cells.Furthermore, the study by histology repair processes and regeneration of the pulp in teeth rat showed abundant proliferation of fibroblast-like cells within the matrix , and the presence of numerous vessels and nerves in matrix cellularized. These results , not observed in the matrices implanted with lysed cells, thus suggesting a feature of the reconstructed tissue and suggested that the pulp cells implanted favored a rapid neovascularization equivalent pulp, presumably by inducing the recruitment of endothelial cells from the residual root vascular network.
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Jean-Baptiste Souron. Régénération de la pulpe dentaire par ingénierie tissulaire : mise au point d’une «pulpe équivalente». Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA05T059⟩. ⟨tel-00931703⟩

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