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Hybridation de fibres optiques et de nanoparticules semiconductrices : application aux sources lumineuses

Ali Hreibi 1 
Abstract : The fiber lasers are currently in the process of replacing their counterparts because of their high performance linked to a guided architecture, having direct impact for a multitude of applications in various fields ranging from telecommunications, to medical via security through sensors. However, the rare earth ions technology has a major drawback that can not meet the growing need for new optical sources with unconventional wavelengths, due to the limitation of the emission to a few predefined wavelengths. To overcome this obstacle, we propose in this thesis to use another type of active materials that are semiconductor nanoparticles known as quantum dots (QDs). Their optical properties are strongly related to their size and can be controlled with high accuracy to cover an emission band extending from ultraviolet to mid-infrared. In this context, colloidal nanoparticles were synthesized through national and international collaborations and their properties were studied before and after insertion into optical fibers. Thereby, the particulate emission PbSe and CdSe / CdS was observed and then guided in the liquid core of the fibers by the mechanism of total internal reflection. With these results, the simulation and experimental realization of a laser cavity based on such fibers was conducted. A lasing effect has been determined theoretically with efficiency close to the quantum limit, associated to an experimental demonstration. In parallel, further work has been undertaken to find new ways of incorporating QDs in optical fibers with the aim to improve long-term stability and resistance to luminous flow while reducing the losses of the host material. In this context, a major study has been devoted to the production of composite materials which, after a period of heat treatment, have shown the formation of PbS nanoparticles of good qualities constituting the state of the art in the field. Finally, more exotic ways of incorporating were also initiated in particular with the idea of making active structures waveguides in the air which are unavailable currently. Examples include the deposition of mono-layers of nanoparticles in the hollow-core photonic crystal fibers or even the functionalization of the aerogel.
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Ali Hreibi. Hybridation de fibres optiques et de nanoparticules semiconductrices : application aux sources lumineuses. Optique / photonique. Université de Limoges, 2012. Français. ⟨tel-00926264⟩

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