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Etude des cellules souches et progénitrices mammaires et de leur contribution à la tumorigenèse : rôle des facteurs de transcription Myc et p53

Abstract : Numerous studies suggested that mammary stem and progenitor cells could be targets of the oncogenic transformation in breast cancer, attracting a particular attention to these cell populations. Mammary epithelium is organized as bilayer, with a layer of luminal secretory cells and a basal myoepithelial layer. Multipotent stem cells able to regenerate mammary epithelium upon transplantation reside in the basal compartment, whereas both mammary epithelial cell layers contain clonogenic stem/progenitor cells.To study the roles played by a proto-oncogene Myc and a tumor suppressor p53 in the control of mammary stem and progenitor cell function, we generated mouse mutants presenting conditional deletion of Myc and Trp53 genes in the basal layer of the mammary epithelium. The Myc-mutants presented hypoplastic glands, and basal cells depleted of Myc were unable to regenerate mammary epithelium. In contrast, deletion of p53 led to increased stem and progenitor cell activity with enhanced capacity to self-renew suggesting that p53 restricts the propagation of the stem/progenitor cell populations in the mammary epithelium. These data clearly demonstrate that Myc and p53 play a central role in the control of the mammary stem cell function. Transgenic mice K5Ncat obtained previously by our team develop basal-type mammary carcinomas with metaplastic component, induced by the expression of activated (N-terminally truncated) -catenin in mammary epithelial basal layer. We found that stem cell activity is increased in preneoplastic K5Ncat mammary epithelium. To study molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying tumor development, Myc- and Trp53-mutants were bred to K5Ncat mice. The deletion of Myc completely inhibited tumorigenesis, whereas in the absence of p53, tumor development was significantly accelerated. Our data suggest that basal stem/progenitor cells might be at the origin of basal-type breast tumors with metaplastic characteristics and that roles played by Myc and p53 in the tumorigenesis are associated with their regulatory functions in stem cells.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, January 7, 2014 - 1:30:31 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00924981, version 1

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Aurélie Chiche. Etude des cellules souches et progénitrices mammaires et de leur contribution à la tumorigenèse : rôle des facteurs de transcription Myc et p53. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA11T091⟩. ⟨tel-00924981⟩

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