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Etude multi-échelle des mécanismes de (dé)lithiation et de dégradation d'électrodes à base de LiFePO4 et de Silicium pour accumulateurs Li-ion

Abstract : This work aimed at better understanding the (de)lithiation and aging mechanisms in LiFePO4 and silicon-based electrodes for Li-ion batteries from multiscale investigations. Phase mapping was performed by electron microscopy at the particle scale and at the electrode scale. This highlights some strong heterogeneities. The silicon study has shown some different lithium reaction mechanisms following two effects: particle size and crystalline defects. A smaller lithium amount in LixSi alloy was highlighted for the nanoparticles rather than for the microparticles. The defects mainly due to milling are preferential sites for the lithiation. In aging, the nanoparticles have undergone structural and morphological changes. The pristine crystalline spherical shape (50 nm) was transformed into an amorphous wire network (5-10 nm of thickness) contained in a SEI matrix. Thanks to a combination of electron microscopy techniques (precession electron diffraction, Electron Forward Scattering Diffraction, EFTEM), it was clearly shown that the LiFePO4 particles (100-200 nm) are either fully lithiated or fully delithiated at the thermodynamic equilibrium. Strong heterogeneities were observed in the thin and thick electrodes. At the nanoscale, the statistical analysis of 64000 particles unambiguously shows that the small particles delithiate in first. At the mesoscale, the phase maps reveal a core-shell mechanism at the scale of the agglomerates, from the surface to the center of these agglomerates. At the electrode scale, the phase front would move following preferential paths into the higher porosity from the surface in contact with electrolyte toward the current collector. The electrode ionic conductivity is the limiting parameter.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00924945
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Submitted on : Tuesday, January 7, 2014 - 12:38:35 PM
Last modification on : Friday, March 25, 2022 - 9:44:13 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Monday, April 7, 2014 - 11:15:16 PM

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Donatien Robert. Etude multi-échelle des mécanismes de (dé)lithiation et de dégradation d'électrodes à base de LiFePO4 et de Silicium pour accumulateurs Li-ion. Matériaux. Université de Grenoble, 2013. Français. ⟨tel-00924945⟩

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