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The brevity of G1 is an intrinsic determinant of naïve pluripotency

Abstract : Pluripotency can be captured and propagated in vitro from the epiblast of the pre-implantation blastocysts in the form of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). ESCs are capable of unlimited proliferation in an undifferentiated state while maintain the potential to differentiate into cells of all three germ layers in the embryo, including the germline. Two key features the ES cell mitotic cycle are (i) a vastly elevated and uniform expression of Cyclin E and Cyclin E/CDK2 complexes throughout the cell cycle and (ii) a short G1 phase characterized by the lack of RB- and p53-dependent checkpoints, and reduced dependency on MAPK signalling. During my PhD project, we explored whether and how the regulation of the cell cycle actively sustains self-renewal of mouse ESCs (mESCs). We demonstrated that: 1/ the G1 phase of mESCs is a phase of increased susceptibility to differentiation inducers. Thus shortening of G1 might shield undifferentiated cells from differentiation inducers and help ESCs to self-renew in the pluripotent state. 2/ Cyclin E opposes differentiation and supports self-renewal of mESCs by two independent mechanisms, one of which being independent of CDK2 activation. 3/ LIF signalling regulates Cyclin E/CDK2 kinase activity therefore accelerating the G1 to S phase transition. Finally, we propose a model in which LIF signalling stimulates the G1 to S phase transition to shield mESCs from undesired differentiation signals and help them to self-renew in the pluripotent state
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Diana Coronado. The brevity of G1 is an intrinsic determinant of naïve pluripotency. Agricultural sciences. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2011. English. ⟨NNT : 2011LYO10311⟩. ⟨tel-00923648⟩

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