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Couplage entre introduction et réparation des cassures double brin pendant les réarrangements programmés du génome de Paramecium tetraurelia

Abstract : Programmed elimination of germline specific DNA has been described in several eukaryotic organisms. These rearrangements are initiated through introduction of DNA double strand breaks (DSB). To ensure genome integrity, efficient repair is needed. In Paramecium tetraurelia, the genome is widely rearranged during development of a new somatic nucleus after introduction of tens of thousands of DSBs by the domesticated transposase PiggyMac (Pgm)These rearrangements consist in: the precise excision of thousands of unique and non coding sequences called IESs that interrupt 47% of genes in the germline; and the heterogeneous elimination of repeated sequences. It leads to internal deletions of variable sizes or to chromosome fragmentation with telomere addition at DNA ends.Implication of the Non Homologous End Joining Pathway (NHEJ) in precise IES excision has been proved. In cells depleted for Ligase IV or XRCC4, DSBs at IES boundaries are introduced normally but broken DNA ends accumulate without being repaired nor degraded. The repair pathway implicated in heterogeneous rearrangements is still unknown. An hypothesis would be that heterogeneous rearrangements involve a Ku independent alternative NHEJ (alt-NHEJ) pathway characterized by end resection and use of microhomologies. During my thesis I studied the role of Ku proteins in programmed genome rearrangements.Two KU70 genes and three KU80 genes has been identified in the Paramecium genome. KU70a and KU80c are specifically induced during programmed genome rearrangements. Encoded proteins localize in developing somatic nuclei. Gene extinction by RNA interference experiments proved that these genes are necessary for programmed genome rearrangements. At molecular level, non rearranged DNA is amplified in cells depleted for Ku. And more surprisingly, no programmed DSBs are introduced at IES boundaries in these cells.My results indicate that Ku is a part of a pre excision complex with the domesticated transposase Pgm and necessary for the introduction of programmed DSB during programmed genome rearrangements.
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Antoine Marmignon. Couplage entre introduction et réparation des cassures double brin pendant les réarrangements programmés du génome de Paramecium tetraurelia. Sciences agricoles. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA112206⟩. ⟨tel-00923174⟩

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