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Développement de nouveaux matériaux d’électrodes pour la production d’hydrogène par électrolyse de l’eau

Abstract : It is expected that PEM water electrolysis will play a significant role in the hydrogen society as a key process for producing hydrogen from renewable energy sources but before this, substantial cost reductions are still required. Because of the high acidity of membrane materials used in PEM water electrolysers, expensive noble-metals or their oxides are required as electrocatalysts (platinum for hydrogen evolution and iridium for oxygen evolution). As the oxygen evolution reaction takes place with a large overpotential (anodic potential > 1.6 V) only few materials can be used to avoid corrosion. In state-of-the-art, noble metal oxides are generally used alone in the active layer with typical loadings of 2-3 mg/cm² and act as both catalyst and electronic conductor.In order to reduce the noble metal loadings and keep a good electronic conductivity of the catalytic layer, iridium can be supported onto a conductive and electrochemical stable material support. To gain more insights, several MEAs with anodes made of pure iridium oxide or 50 wt % IrO2/Ti anodes have been prepared and characterized using cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy, and by measuring polarization curves at different operating temperatures. Without the catalyst support, anodic loadings can be reduced down to 0,5 mg/cm² without any degradation in the electrochemical performances. By using anodes made of iridium oxide and titanium particles, further reductions of anodic loading can be made down to 0.1 mg/cm² with performances similar to those obtained with conventional loadings of several mg cm-2.
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Caroline Rozain. Développement de nouveaux matériaux d’électrodes pour la production d’hydrogène par électrolyse de l’eau. Autre. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA112177⟩. ⟨tel-00923169⟩

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