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Etude théorique des effets relativistes induits par une impulsion lumineuse ultra-rapide dans la matière

Abstract : This thesis focuses on the relativistic corrections induced by an ultra-short and intense light pulse in condensed matter. It is part of the new theme of the coherent ultra-fast demagnetization of ferromagnetic systems induced by a femtosecond laser pulse [ Nature, 5, 515 (2009)] [1]. A relativistic coupling between spins and photons has been proposed to explain the experimental results obtained in [1]. The first part of this work focuses on the nonrelativistic limit of the Dirac’s formalism. By means of the Foldy–Wouthuysen transformation the nonrelativistic approximation of the external-electromagnetic-field Dirac equation to fifth order in powers of 1/m is obtained. Generalizing this result we postulate a general expression of the direct spin–field electronic hamiltonian valid at any order in 1/m. A similar work is performed on a two-interacting electrons system described with the Breit hamiltonian, whose the diagonalization at third order in 1/m illustrates an original coupling between the spin, the coulombian interaction and the time-dependent external electromagnetic field. In a second part, a classical model is developed for modeling ultrafast nonlinear coherent magneto-optical experiments performed on ferromagnetic thin films. Theoretical predictions of the Faraday rotation angles are compared to available experimental values and give meaningful insights about the physical mechanisms underlying the observed coherent magneto-optical phenomena. The crucial role played by the spin-orbit mechanism resulting from the direct interaction between the external electric field of the laser and the electron spins of the sample is underlined.
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Yannick Hinschberger. Etude théorique des effets relativistes induits par une impulsion lumineuse ultra-rapide dans la matière. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université de Strasbourg, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012STRAE041⟩. ⟨tel-00923154⟩

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