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Caractérisation et dynamique des états excités des molécules aromatiques protonées

Abstract : Protonated aromatic molecules play an important role in electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions, fundamental reactions in organic chemistry and in various biological processes. The interstellar medium is another environment which is likely to contain the protonated aromatic molecules, that’s because these molecules are stable chemically since they are close shell electronic structure. These molecules were also identified in others environments such as combustion flames, plasmas of various hydrocarbons and the upper atmosphere of Titan. Protonated molecules are usually very sensitive to their local environment; a gas phase study is required to determine their intrinsic properties. Until now, very little is known about the isolated protonated molecules, only a few results are available in the literature. This lack of data is due to the difficulties of the production and the cooling of these molecules in gas phase. The technical progress we have done has enabled the study of protonated molecules in the gas phase at very low temperatures, using an ion sources, supersonic jet and the laser induced photofragmentation techniques. Using this technique, we have recorded many electronic spectra (S1←S0) of different protonated molecules. We can regroup the studied molecules into four: Linear protonated polycyclic aromatic molecules (benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, tetracene, pentacene). Nonlinear protonated polycyclic aromatic molecules (fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene). Protonated molecules containing an hetero atom (benzaldehyde, salicylaldehyde, 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol, indole, aniline). Protonated cluster (dimer of benzene, naphthalene (H2O)n, n = 1,2,3. Naphthalene (NH3)n, n = 1,2,3, benzaldehyde (Ar, N2)). Most of those spectra are red-shifted compare to the spectrums of neutral parent molecules. This red-shift is due to charge transfer character of the first excited state. Some spectra are vibrationally resolved, while for other molecules the spectrum do not shows any vibrational progression. This behaviour is explained by the dynamic of the excited state, this dynamic being usually is very fast, sometimes leading to the ground state through a conical intersection. The spectra of protonated molecules are very active vibrationally in comparison with neutral molecules, many vibrational modes forbidden for neutral molecule becomes active for the protonated one (Franck-Condon factor is not zero). This is reflecting the charge transfer character of the excited state. The experimental results were complemented by ab-initio calculations, which have allowed determining the electronic transition, the geometric and electronic structure of the molecule, the vibrational modes, and for some of these molecules the dynamics of excited state. Calculations are generally in very good agreement with experiments.
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Ivan Alata. Caractérisation et dynamique des états excités des molécules aromatiques protonées. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA112187⟩. ⟨tel-00923146⟩

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