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Conception de circuits analogique-numérique pour le conditionnement de micro-capteurs embarqués

Abstract : The domain of sensors instrumentation is constantly evolving. The present work proposes the design of the key elements conception which constitute the instrumentations chains of current sensors through 3 concrete applications. The first application is speed and position measurement, for example in a wheel bearing. We present the design and realization of an analogical circuit for the conditioning of magneto resistive sensor. This sensor measures the magnetic field generated by the coding wheel magnetic poles inside the bearing. The circuit is noise and power consumption optimized on a bandwidth of few kHz. To compensate sensors variability, the circuit includes offset regulations and gains. It also contains an OTP (One Time Programmable) memory which backs up the associated sensor regulations. The second application is the measurement of EcoG's signals to interface with the human brain. We describe the design and realization of SAR ADC. It is composed of a capacitive DAC with an attenuation capacitor to reduce the total number of condensers and, in doing so, to reduce power consumption. The comparator is composed by a rail-to-rail input and multistage preamplification and output offset storage. ADC total power consumption is 86µW for 24Ks/S speed and 12bits resolution. Finally the third application is the pressure measurement on aircraft wings. We describe the architectural study sigma-delta incremental ADC which reaches high resolution for low band pass signals. Its resolution is 16bits ENOB for a maximal input frequency of 100Hz and an output speed of 1Ks/S. The incremental mode leads to obtain output code in answer to asynchronous requests. Each system element (converter plus sensors) has been matlab modelled. The converter digital filtering study and its digital implementation optimization are presented. This complete architectural study concludes with the sizing of each element in order to answer the technical specifications of the application.
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Guillaume Regis. Conception de circuits analogique-numérique pour le conditionnement de micro-capteurs embarqués. Autre. Université de Grenoble, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011GRENA001⟩. ⟨tel-00923134⟩



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