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Theses

Chorégraphie de ségrégation des deux chromosomes de Vibrio cholerae

Abstract : The aim of this thesis is to define the segregation choreography of the two circular chromosomes of Vibrio cholerae, which is the positionning of the genetic information during cell growth, as well as the mecanisms directing those segregations. It was supposed for a long time that bacteria were too small to have a intra-cellular organization and the lack of appropriate tools could not prove this hypothesis wrong. The size of the chromosomes compared to the size of the cell means there has to be a compaction and today, new tools for microscopy and genetic analysis allow us to affirm that all bacterial chromosomes studied so far have an organization and a segregation choreography which are precise and different between specie. Most bacterial specie studied to this day have a unique circular chromosome : the replication of the chromosome starts at a unique and bidirectionnal origin, both replication forks move along the two replication arms (or replichores) and end the replication at the terminus which is diametrically to the opposite of the origin on the chromosome map. A few specie have been studied, and Vibrio cholerae progressively emerges as a new model : its genome is divided between two chromosomes, and the choreography of several chromosomes in a cell has never been described. Moreover, this species seems to be at the crossover between Caulobacter crescentus and Escherichia coli : Vibrio cholerae as on one hand, a crescent shape, partition systems positionned at both origins and a positionning of the chromosome I origin similar to C. crescentus, and on the other hand a compaction system of the terminus and a set of genes involved on the maintenance of chromosomes that one only finds in very few specie closely related to E. coli. An other interesting characteristic of V. cholerae is that the chromosome II seems to have been acquired recently and thus might not be governed by the same mecanisms as the chromosome I, as shown by the positionning of its origin and terminus which are completely new to bacterial chromosomes. Among Vibrios (about 60 species mostly found in aquatic environments), some species are devastating pathogens for fish, coral, crustacean and shellfish. But the most documented one is Vibrio cholerae, because it induces a disease in humans caused by the ingestion of contaminated water, which can be deadly if the patient is not rehydrated on time. Although easily treatable, cholera still makes a lot of victims in developing countries where health structures and basic hygiene sometimes lack dramatically. The study of Vibrio cholerae has a medical interest, but also by extention to other Vibrios, a non-negligible environmental interest.
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Ariane David. Chorégraphie de ségrégation des deux chromosomes de Vibrio cholerae. Sciences agricoles. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA112298⟩. ⟨tel-00921394⟩

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