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Caractérisation des populations de Mycosphaerella fijiensis et épidémiologie de la cercosporiose noire du bananier dans la région de Kisangani, RDC

Abstract : The black leaf streak disease (MNR) , caused by the ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis , is one of the most devastating diseases banana ( Musa spp.) . It is a major constraint to production , particularly in countries of the humid tropics where banana is a staple food crop . The objective of this thesis was to characterize the M. fijiensis populations and to study the epidemiology of the MNR in region of Kisangani (DRC) to evaluate protection strategies integrated to develop in crops of bananas and plantains . The particularity of our approach lies in the combination of studies laboratory , according to classical and molecular approaches , and field experiments to better understand the characteristics epidemiology of the disease according to the seasons and cropping systems . Phenotypic characteristics of strains isolated from Kisangani on PDA medium were typical of the species M. fijiensis . This identification was confirmed by an approach based on the molecular sequence of a part of the ribosomal DNA ITS regions including ( internal transcribed spacers ) and 5.8 gene S. The existence of two types of cross -1 and Mat1 Ma1 -2 in the population has been disclosed but an imbalance between the two euhedral was noticed . The evaluation of the pathogenicity of strains showed that all strains tested pathogenicity vis-à -vis the Cavendish cultivar ' Grand Nain '. Our study also to highlight the differences in virulence between strains . Tests sensitivity to fungicides showed that strains of the DRC sensitive to triazoles and carbendazim , but some strains are resistant to azoxystrobin . Epidemiologically , our study showed that the two forms fungal (anamorph and teleomorph ) are present not only in rainy season but also subsèche season . They therefore play a important role in the epidemiology of the disease. The incidence of the disease was slightly lower seasonal subsèche in wet season. a comparison of disease progression in both seasons by culture system revealed that the development of the MNR was more slow secondary forest in fallow and garden box and the incidence and severity was greater on plantains on bananas. the better tolerance cultivar Yangambi Km5 was confirmed. These findings shed new light on the epidemiology of disease in the region of Kisangani and the characteristics of the population involved. They have been exploited to develop a list of recommendations to better manage the damage of M. fijiensis , a significant pathogen evolutionary potential . Google Traduction pour les entreprises :Google Kit du traducteurGadget
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00920881
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Submitted on : Thursday, December 19, 2013 - 1:31:47 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, November 29, 2017 - 3:02:12 PM
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Didy Onautshu Odimba, Anne Legrève, Benoît Dhed'a Djailo. Caractérisation des populations de Mycosphaerella fijiensis et épidémiologie de la cercosporiose noire du bananier dans la région de Kisangani, RDC. Sciences du Vivant [q-bio]. Université Catholique de Louvain, 2013. Français. ⟨tel-00920881⟩

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