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Ecologie des communautés zooplanctoniques au sein de deux écosystèmes littoraux méditerranéens : traitement des séries temporelles

Abstract : This work focused the study of the evolution of zooplankton communities from time series of surveys conducted from 1995 to 2010 in two coastal coupled ecosystems, Little Bay (PR) and Large Bay (GR) of Toulon (North Western Mediterranean Sea, France) in relation to climatic factors, physical and chemical water parameters and phytoplankton. The samplings surveys of zooplankton, and indeed also of phytoplankton, were a month, on average. The net mesh size used was 90 µm to target Mesozooplankton. The PR differed from the GR in its ecological functioning, because it is semi-closed, but also because human activity is much more important. Our results showed that, from 1995 to 2010 in both bays, zooplankton abundance increased substantially, especially in the PR. It was also established, using statistical tools, that most zooplankton species evolved coordinated each year, but in a different way from one year to another. This is what we call the annual signature, which was more pronounced in the PR. Several environmental parameters such as temperature, oxygen, salinity and sunlight, which were simultaneously recorded, explained this annual signature. It was shown that they significantly influenced the population of zooplankton, instantly or with a delayed effect. Interactions responsible for this development are complex, but it was also established that these factors were stronger when they acted in a coordinated manner. Distribution of zooplankton taxonomic groups showed diversity increases until 2005 and then decreased slightly, while remaining at levels higher than in 1995. The detailed study of diversity, with a classification of the clues themselves was the subject of the last chapter. Finally, we hypothesize that the decline of fish stocks in recent decades throughout the region, resulting in lower rate of predation on zooplankton communities, may explain the increase of zooplankton communities in recent years. This increase in zooplankton abundance could in turn lead to a decrease in phytoplankton biomass. The decrease of phytoplankton was at the same time observed by our team. The latter hypothesis suggests a top-down control of the the food web
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00920257
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Submitted on : Wednesday, December 18, 2013 - 9:57:08 AM
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Benjamim Bandeira. Ecologie des communautés zooplanctoniques au sein de deux écosystèmes littoraux méditerranéens : traitement des séries temporelles. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Toulon, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013TOUL0005⟩. ⟨tel-00920257⟩

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