La déficience intellectuelle : du diagnostic en puces ADN à l'identification de gènes candidats

Abstract : Chromosomal Microarray Analysis (CMA) has become the main diagnostic test in the field of intellectual disability (ID). Among CMA techniques, SNP arrays have the advantage of identifying losses of heterozygosity in addition to Copy Number Variants (CNVs). Therefore they can detect uniparental isodisomies (iUPD) and regions of identity by descent. We screened a cohort of 1,187 patients with ID, in diagnostic setting, by CMA using SNP arrays. Causal abnormalities, including 2 iUPDs and 6 deletions comprising only one gene, were detected in 145 patients (12%). Moreover we found 639 rare CNVs, absent from control individuals, which included coding sequences. Our results allowed us to identify 11 genes possibly involved in or contributing to ID: CAMTA1, SP3, CNTNAP4, NUDT12, STXBP6, DOCK8, DOCK10, SMARCA2, NYAP2, ATAD3A and ATAD3B. We then screened additional patients with similar phenotypes in order to find a second mutation, but no second mutation was identified in any of them. Besides, CAMTA1 rearrangements were also found among two other families with homogeneous phenotypes (ID and congenital ataxia), which confirms that this gene is involved in ID. Furthermore, thanks to homozygosity mapping made possible by SNP arrays combined with exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous nonsense mutation in the BUD13 gene, in a family with syndromic ID. Finally we incidentally characterized a familial translocation resulting in the disruption of ATXN10, a gene responsible for spinocerebellar ataxia. This translocation has helped to better understand the pathophysiology of the disease. Overall, our study shows the importance of SNP arrays for the molecular diagnosis of ID and as a tool to identify genes responsible for ID.
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Boris Keren. La déficience intellectuelle : du diagnostic en puces ADN à l'identification de gènes candidats. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA05T041⟩. ⟨tel-00918306⟩

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