Complexe Majeur d’Histocompatibilité et génomique fonctionnelle dans les spondylarthrites

Abstract : Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a frequent chronic inflammatory rheumatic disorder, with a prevalence of 0.3% in France. Pathological mechanisms leading to SpA remain largely uncertain. Nevertheless, the heritability of this disorder is high, likely involving multiple genetic factors, among which the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region and particularly the HLA-B27 allele which plays a prominent role. The objective of this work was to achieve a better understanding of SpA physiopathology via genetic and transcriptomic approaches. The first part of my work consisted in identification of MHC polymorphisms associated with SpA, distinct of HLA-B27. Association studies based on the genetic data of 3 independent cohorts have allowed to identify 5 SNPs associated to SpA, independently of HLA-B27. Two polymorphisms localized next to MICA and MAPK14 genes seem particularly interesting for their implication in SpA pathogenesis. In parallel of this study, we characterized HLA-B27 prevalence in a French cohort corresponding to 6.9% in healthy controls and 74.2% in SpA patients. Functional studies on monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MD-DCs) revealed altered capacity to stimulate allogeneic CD4+ T cell responses by MD-DCs from SpA patients and a transcriptomic signature of 81 genes differentially expressed in those cells, as compared to those from healthy controls. Among validated genes, ADAMTS15, F13A1 and SELL could play a role in SpA inflammation, whereas CITED2 seemed to be correlated to Wnt pathway. Finally, a strong correlation between ERAP1 SpA-susceptibility haplotype and an increased expression of this gene and the ERAP1 protein has been identified.
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Alice Talpin. Complexe Majeur d’Histocompatibilité et génomique fonctionnelle dans les spondylarthrites. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA05T037⟩. ⟨tel-00917678⟩

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