_. Ritter, &. Schulten-86, ]. H. Ritter, and K. Schulten, On the stationary state of Kohonen's self-organizing sensory mapping, Biological Cybernetics, vol.287, issue.2, pp.99-106, 1986.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00320480

H. Ritter and K. Schulten, Convergence properties of Kohonen's topology conserving maps: fluctuations, stability, and dimension selection, Biological Cybernetics, vol.60, issue.1, pp.59-71, 1988.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00205972

. Tiourine, An overview of algorithmic approaches to frequency assignment problems, CALMA Symp. Final report, pp.53-62, 1995.

M. Vasquez and J. K. Hao, A Heuristic Approach for Antenna Positioning in Cellular Networks, Journal of Heuristics, vol.7, issue.5, pp.443-472, 2001.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1011373828276

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00359366

. Zimmermann, ENCON: an evolutionary algorithm for the antenna placement problem, Computers & Industrial Engineering, vol.44, issue.2, pp.209-226, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0360-8352(02)00176-6

_. Ghaziri-96-]-h and . Ghaziri, Supervision in the Self-Organizing Feature Map: Application to the Vehicle Routing Problem, pp.651-660, 1996.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4613-1361-8_39

. Golden, Metaheuristics in vehicle routing, Fleet Management and Logistics, pp.33-56, 1998.

. Hayari, A Neural Evolutionary Algorithm for Geometric Median Cycle Problem, European Simulation and Modeling Conference, 2005.

&. Johnson, . S. Mcgeoch-02-]-d, L. A. Johnson, and . Mcgeoch, Experimental Analysis of Heuristics for the STSP, pp.369-443, 2002.
DOI : 10.1007/0-306-48213-4_9

&. Johnson, . S. Mcgeoch-97-]-d, L. A. Johnson, and . Mcgeoch, The Traveling Salesman Problem: A

. Kirkpatrick, Optimization by Simulated Annealing, Science, vol.220, issue.4598, pp.671-680, 1983.
DOI : 10.1126/science.220.4598.671

M. Labbé, I. Rodríguez-martín, and J. J. Salazar-gonzález, Locating median cycles in networks, European Journal of Operational Research, vol.160, issue.2, pp.457-470, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ejor.2003.07.010

&. Merz, . Freisleben-01-]-p, B. Merz, and . Freisleben, Memetic Algorithms for the Traveling Salesman Problem, Complex Systems, vol.13, issue.4, pp.297-345, 2001.

D. Mester and O. Bräysy, Active guided evolution strategies for large-scale vehicle routing problems with time windows, Computers & Operations Research, vol.32, issue.6, pp.1593-1614, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cor.2003.11.017

&. Toth, ]. P. Vigo-03, D. Toth, and . Vigo, The Granular Tabu Search and Its Application to the Vehicle-Routing Problem, INFORMS Journal on Computing, vol.15, issue.4, pp.333-348, 2003.
DOI : 10.1287/ijoc.15.4.333.24890

T. Volgenant and R. Jonker, On Some Generalizations of the Travelling-Salesman Problem, Journal of the Operational Research Society, vol.38, issue.11, pp.1073-1079, 1987.
DOI : 10.1057/jors.1987.177

J. Ferber, Les systèmes multi-agents. Vers une intelligence collective, InterEditions, 1995.

. Ferrand, Systèmes multi-agents réactifs et résolution de problèmes spatialisés. Revue d, Intelligence Artificielle, vol.12, issue.1, pp.37-72, 1998.

S. Forrest, Emergent computation : Self-organizing, Collective, and Cooperative Phenomena in Natural and Artificial Computing Networks. Introduction to the proceedings of the 9th annual CNLS Conference in "emergent computation, pp.1-11, 1990.

. Gendreau, Neighborhood search heuristics for a dynamic vehicle dispatching problem with pick-ups and deliveries, Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, vol.14, issue.3, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/j.trc.2006.03.002

]. K. Ghedira, Masc : une Approche Multi-Agents des Problèmes de Satisfaction de Contraintes, Thèse de l'Ecole Nationale Supérieure de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace, spécialité Intelligence Artificielle, 21 Juin, 1993.

&. Hansen, ]. P. Mladenovic-01, M. Hansen, and . Mladenovic, Variable neighborhood search: Principles and applications, European Journal of Operational Research, vol.130, issue.3, pp.449-467, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0377-2217(00)00100-4

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.93.1769

. Hilaire, A Multi-Agent Approach to Adaptive Mesh Generation, Agent-Based Simulation ABS, 2000.

&. Johnson, . S. Mcgeoch-97-]-d, L. A. Johnson, and . Mcgeoch, The Traveling Salesman Problem: A

. Kilby, Dynamic VRPs: a study of scenarios

. Kozlak, Multi-agent Environment for Modelling and Solving Dynamic Transport Problems, journal Computing and Informatics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 2008.

. Kozlak, Multi-agent Approach to Dynamic Pick-up and Delivery Problem with Uncertain Knowledge about Future Transport Demands, Fundamenta Informaticae, European Association for Theoretical Computer Science, vol.71, issue.1, pp.27-36, 2006.

J. Kozlak, J. C. Créput, V. Hilaire, and A. Koukam, Multi-agent Environment for Dynamic Transport Planning and Scheduling, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol.3038, pp.638-645, 2004.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-540-24688-6_83

. Kuhn, Dynamic Optimization for Medical Emergencies Management, Medical Systems, 2007.

A. Larsen, The Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problem, 2000.

. Lawrence, A Scalable Parallel Algorithm for Self-Organizing Maps with Applications to Sparse Data Mining problems

. Lissajoux, Mobile Network Dimensioning : an Evolutionary Approach, IEEE-ACM-SCS International Symposium on Modeling, p.99, 1999.

&. Mcclelland, ]. J. Rogers-03, T. T. Mcclelland, and . Rogers, The parallel distributed processing approach to semantic cognition, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol.4, issue.4, pp.310-322, 2003.
DOI : 10.1038/nrn1076

. Meignan, A Coalition-Based Metaheuristic for the vehicle routing problem, 2008 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence), 2008.
DOI : 10.1109/CEC.2008.4630945

. Meignan, An Organizational View of Metaheuristics, Proc. of the First International Workshop on Optimisation in Multi-Agent Systems, AAMAS'08, 2008.

. Meignan, Un framework organisationnel pour la conception et l'implantation multi-agent de métaheuristiques. Journées Francophones sur les Systèmes Multi-Agents, pp.15-17, 2008.

. Messai, Modélisation macroscopique du trafic sur un carrefour urbain: approches neuronales et estimation paramétrique, 3e Conférence Francophone de Modélisation et Simulation, MOSIM'01, pp.25-27, 2001.

M. Minsky, Society of mind, Artificial Intelligence, vol.48, issue.3, 1986.
DOI : 10.1016/0004-3702(91)90036-J

M. Mundhenk, J. Goldsmith, C. Lusena, and E. Allender, Complexity of finite-horizon Markov decision process problems, Journal of the ACM, vol.47, issue.4, pp.681-720, 2000.
DOI : 10.1145/347476.347480

M. H. Ong, N. Lim, K. W. Zhu, and . Wong, Classification of Adaptive Memetic Algorithms: A Comparative Study, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B, vol.36, issue.1, pp.141-152, 2006.

V. J. Rayward-smith, A Unified Approach to Tabu Search, Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithms, Application of Modern Heuristics Methods

A. Roly and M. Milano, Magma: A multiagent architecture for metaheuristics, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics Part B, vol.34, issue.2, pp.925-941, 2004.