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Target in context : molecular pathology of pediatric ependymoma and high grade glioma

Abstract : Biomarkers for the classification, clinical management and prognosis of pediatric brain tumors (ependymoma and high grade glioma, (HGG)) are lacking. To address this, biomarkers were developed and explored in view of classification, prognostication, target identification and prediction of the efficacy of treatment for patients with such tumors.We show that overexpression of neuronal markers distinguishes supratentorial from infratentorial ependymoma, and among the former higher immunoexpression of neurofilament 70 (NEFL) is correlated with better progression free survival (PFS). Tenascin-C (TNC) is significantly overexpressed in infratentorial ependymoma. A multi-institutional European ependymoma collaboration group was established and analyses were performed in a pediatric cohort of 250 patients, where immunohistochemistry (IHC) for TNC showed to be a robust marker of poor overall survival (OS) and PFS, particularly among children under 3 years, this being further validated in an independent cohort. Techniques and scoring performed in different laboratories were highly reproducible. IHC for NEFL and TNC could be used for prognostication of pediatric ependymoma.The analysis of putative predictive markers for the response to targeted therapies in pediatric HGG in the setting of a clinical trial with the anti-EGFR agent erlotinib was performed by IHC and fluorescent in situ hybridization. The frequent loss of PTEN in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) and the confirmation of the biological singularity of the certain subgroups (expressing EGFR, displaying oligodendroglial differentiation) which seem to be associated with better response to erlotinib have helped our group to establish the design of the next Phase III protocol for this disease at our institution. We report mutations in PI3KCA constituting the first identification of oncogene mutations in some DIPG, which further highlight their biological heterogeneity. Further studies are needed to define the interaction between PTEN loss, EGFR overexpression, oligodendroglial differentiation, PI3KCA mutations and other recent findings such as PDGFRA/MET gains/amplification and TP53 mutations in these heterogeneous lesions and their relationship to the outcome of patients under new targeted therapies for this largely fatal disease.This thesis has allowed us to explore the molecular pathology in the context of biology and clinical setting of pediatric brain tumors.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00913042
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Submitted on : Tuesday, December 3, 2013 - 10:34:50 AM
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Felipe Andreiuolo. Target in context : molecular pathology of pediatric ependymoma and high grade glioma. Cancer. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. English. ⟨NNT : 2012PA11T030⟩. ⟨tel-00913042⟩

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