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Structure de la communauté phytoplanctonique des fleuves côtiers en réponse aux contraintes hydrodynamique : une approche basée sur les traits morpho-fonctionnels

Abstract : Functional traits are increasingly used in ecology to explain changes in the composition and structure of phytoplankton community in relation to environmental constraints. Functional traits are related to growth and loss processes, and thus they determine the occurrence, dominance or absence of species in given environmental conditions. Among the functional traits, morpho-functional traits display the advantage of their ease to be measured. Approaches based on morpho-functional traits were mainly used in lakes, but could however be relevant in rivers where the relative significance of environmental constraints acting on the phytoplankton community varies from one system to another. The aim of this thesis was therefore to test the hypothesis that riverine phytoplankton community could be structured according to morpho-functional features. In the rivers studied, we showed that the community is structured according to morpho-functional traits related to sedimentation rate, highlighting the key role of the shape of organisms, but also of their motility and density via the presence of mucilage. Through the selection of different values for these morpho-functional traits, we highlighted the main impact of turbulence on the phytoplankton community within these rivers. The effect of this parameter has been tested experimentally on a simplified community under controlled conditions in order to test the hypothesis that as a result of turbulence, the composition of community structure could be predicted through morpho-functional traits. The results of this experimental approach helped to reiterate the key role of the shape in community structure thus corroborating the results found in rivers. It also stressed the role of phenotypic plasticity. This approach based on features was also tested in estuaries, but was, however, unsuccessful. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this result, including the lack of traits identified as related to salinity.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00911634
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Submitted on : Friday, November 29, 2013 - 3:17:22 PM
Last modification on : Monday, April 29, 2019 - 2:30:43 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00911634, version 1

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Stéphane Fraisse. Structure de la communauté phytoplanctonique des fleuves côtiers en réponse aux contraintes hydrodynamique : une approche basée sur les traits morpho-fonctionnels. Sciences agricoles. Université Rennes 1, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013REN1S065⟩. ⟨tel-00911634⟩

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