Résonances de Ruelle à la limite semiclassique

Abstract : Since the work of Ruelle, then Rugh, Baladi, Tsujii, Liverani and others, it is kown that the convergence towards statistical equilibrium in many chaotic dynamical systems is gouverned by the Ruelle spectrum of resonances of the so-called transfer operator. Following recent works from Faure, Sjöstrand and Roy, this thesis gives a semiclassical approach for partially expanding chaotic dynamical systems. The first part of the thesis is devoted to compact Lie groups extenstions of expanding maps, essentially restricting to SU(2) extensions. Using Perlomov's coherent state theory for Lie groups, we apply the semiclassical theory of resonances of Helfer and Sjöstrand. We deduce Weyl type estimations and a spectral gap for the Ruelle resonances, showing that the convergence towards equilibrium is controled by a finite rank operator (as Tsujii already showed for partially expanding semi-flows). We then extend this approach to "open" models, for which the dynamics exhibits a fractal invariant reppeler. We show the existence of a discrete spectrum of resonances and we prove a fractal Weyl law, the classical analogue of Lin-Guillopé-Zworski's theorem on resonances of non-compact hyperbolic surfaces. We also show an asymptotic spectral gap. Finally we breifly explain why these models are interseting "toy models" to explore important questions of classical and quantum chaos. In particular, we have in mind the problem of proving lower bounds on the number of resonances, studied in the context of open quantum maps by Nonnenmacher and Zworski.
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Jean-François Arnoldi. Résonances de Ruelle à la limite semiclassique. Mathématiques générales [math.GM]. Université de Grenoble, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012GRENM105⟩. ⟨tel-00909669⟩

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