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Interaction agrégats-surface. Spectrométrie de masse par temps de vol et application analytique à des études sur des médicaments et sur la météorite Paris

Abstract : The Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission (LAEC) is incorporated in a development program of the analytical techniques in order to complete the Ion Beam Analysis (IBA). It was decided to get a mass spectrometer coupled to 2D and recently to 3D imaging, by acquiring an ION TOFVTM system equipped with two ionic columns delivering bismuth and argon cluster beams.In this context, my thesis is focused on the optimization of the instrument, recently purchased, for the analysis of samples containing organic compounds. The first subjects of research are the development of a protocol for quantitative analysis of drugs using the « cluster-SIMS-imaging » technique and the Paris meteorite analysis to determine its composition and to localize the organic matter. In the last case a multi-techniques approach was used : IBA in LAEC, µ-Raman et µ-IR around the Soleil synchrotron equipments and µPIXE carried with the AGLAE accelerator (Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF).The drug analysis was initiated in Lebanon in collaboration with a local pharmaceutical manufacturer (Mediphar Laboratories) in order to establish new processes for quality control of the final products. My study showed the complexity of the drug quantification which is due to the presence of several active ingredients (AI) and inactive organic and minerals components (excipients) mixed in secret conditions. Matrix effects are dominant and modify the ionic emission leading to significant systematic errors. This complexity has been analyzed with the study of FludiniumTM with two active ingredients. The results of this study allowed to obtain the first calibration curves of the ratio between the two AIs and to quantify them in the commercial drug. The protocol to perform the calibration curve and the « quality» controls were determined. These incorporate a profile analysis to control the homogeneity of the samples and the obtaining standards produced by the pharmaceutical manufacturer following the same process used for the commercial drug. Indeed, the experiments have shown that the preparation of the drug in the laboratory from its elements (AIs and excipients) doesn’t give the same ionic emission as for the commercial drug.The Paris meteorite analysis was initiated by a collaboration with the Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale d’Orsay team involved in the exobiology and the research of the first prebiotic molecules in the extraterrestrial samples. The work objective is to characterize the organic matter representing few percents in mass in a complex mineral matrix, without any chemical extraction that can induce a modification of these molecules. This study has demonstrated the interest of the multi-techniques approach centered on the mass spectrometry coupled to the ionic imaging for the determination of the main mineral and organic elements of the matrix. µPIXE analysis coupled to the micrometric mapping permits to attribute the distribution of molecular ions and clusters of the mass spectra with different mineral compounds. These attributions continue with the creation of the data base of standard spectra. The organic component was determined and the first hypotheses were considered concerning PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon), IOM (Insoluble Organic Matter) and analogues of amorphous carbon produced par UV irradiation of ices with a gas composition representing different hypotheses for the interstellar clouds. The establish protocols for multi-techniques (incorporating a follow of the sample by mass spectrometry and ion imaging) permits to start the analysis of other extra terrestrial samples collected on earth or in space.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, November 20, 2013 - 12:52:09 PM
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Manale Noun. Interaction agrégats-surface. Spectrométrie de masse par temps de vol et application analytique à des études sur des médicaments et sur la météorite Paris. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA112226⟩. ⟨tel-00906791⟩

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