Cholestérol-24S-hydroxylase (CYP46A1) et homéostasie du cholestérol dans la rétine en conditions physiologiques et pathologiques

Abstract : Cholesterol is the major sterol found in the retina. In its free form, cholesterol is present in all cell layers of the retina, whereas cholesteryl esters mainly accumulate at the basement of the retinal pigment epithelium. The intrinsic capacity of the retina to synthetize cholesterol appears limited. Some extra-retinal pathways actively participate to cholesterol uptake to the retina. Müller glial cells may contribute to cholesterol supply to retinal neurons, especially for synaptic formation. Cholesterol accumulation or conversely deficiency have deleterious consequences on neuron survival. Maintaining the equilibrium between cholesterol supply and neosynthesis in the one hand and cholesterol elimination in the other hand is crucial. For that purpose, the inner retina converts cholesterol into 24S-hydroxycholesterol. The transport of 24S-hydroxycholesterol across membranes is facilitated by the addition of the hydroxyle group to cholesterol at position 24 of carbon chain since it renders cholesterol more hydrophilic. CYP46A1 (cholesterol 24S-hydroxylase) is the enzyme which catalyzes this reaction. Some links between CYP46A1, 24S-hydroxycholesterol and neurodegenerative processes have been reported in the brain, suggesting a potential role in several pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease. CYP46A1 is expressed in the neural retina and specifically in retinal ganglion cells. The contribution of CYP46A1 in the retina remains unknown. Moreover by analogy with the brain, we can suggest a function for CYP46A1 in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis in retinal neurons. Possible associations between CYP46A1 and Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma were suspected. In this context, we aimed to evaluate the role of CYP46A1 in the retina in physiological and pathological conditions. Through a clinical approach, we found that a genetic polymorphism in CYP46A1 was a risk factor for glaucoma (Odd Ratio = 1.26 ; 95% CI=1.006-1.574, p<0.05) (Fourgeux et al. 2009, Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:5712-7). By contrast, this genetic polymorphism was not found as a risk factor in AMD patients, but may become an additional risk factor in patients who do not carry risk allele in CFH and LOC387715 genes (Fourgeux et al. 2012, Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53:7026-33). Two experimental approaches suggested that a link between retinal stress and 24S-hydroxycholesterol does exist. Indeed, in a rat model of glaucoma of elevated intraocular pressure, we suggested the crucial role of CYP46A1 in maintaining CYP46A1 expression in the course of retinal neurodegeneration (Fourgeux et al. 2012, Acta Ophthalmol, Sep 23; doi: 10.1111/j.1755-3768.2012.02490.x.). Pharmacological inhibition of CYP46A1 activity in the retina by voriconazole administered in vivo in the rat highlighted that the decrease in retinal 24S-hydroxycholesterol levels was associated with RGC dysfunction evaluated by electroretinography. In parallel, we observed glial activation in which magnitude was exacerbated when microglia activation was inhibited by minocycline at the same time.In conclusion, by a dual clinical and experimental approach, our works suggest a crucial role for CYP46A1 in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in the retina in physiological and pathological conditions. Müller glial cell intervention in this process may be suspected especially in pathological conditions of glaucoma
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Sciences agricoles. Université de Bourgogne, 2012. Français. <NNT : 2012DIJOS090>
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Cynthia Fourgeux. Cholestérol-24S-hydroxylase (CYP46A1) et homéostasie du cholestérol dans la rétine en conditions physiologiques et pathologiques. Sciences agricoles. Université de Bourgogne, 2012. Français. <NNT : 2012DIJOS090>. <tel-00905888>




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