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Analyses des propriétés locales des galaxies hôtes des Supernovae de type Ia dans la collaboration The Nearby Supernova Factory

Abstract : Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are powerful cosmological distance indicators. They were key tools for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe and today they remain the strongest demonstrated technique for measuring the dark-energy equation of state. However, a major issue remains: despite decades of study, their progenitors are as yet undetermined. Notably, we still ignore the influence of the redshift-evolution of stellar properties on the absolute luminosity of the SNe Ia and therefore on the fitted cosmological parameters. Recent studies have highlighted potential biases correlated with the global properties of their host galaxies, large enough to induce systematic errors into cosmological measurements if not properly treated. However, those studies analyse hosts of Type Ia supernovae globally thus neglecting the known stellar and gas property variations across galaxies. ! In this thesis, I show how integral field spectroscopy data from the Nearby Supernova Factory allow the study of the local environment of the SNe Ia (~kpc). In the first part of this document, I introduce the physical principals and the scientific context of this work. In a second part, I start by detailing the technical extraction tools developed in order to extract the local host properties. Then, I show how one could measure the star formation activity in the SN vicinity from those data. I focus the analysis on this star formation activity and notably I show how the SNe Ia properties -- particularly their standardised Hubble residuals -- depend on the local host environment, which corresponds to a significant cosmological bias. I finish this second part by introducing a simple model based on the known evolution of the galactic star formation activity. This model enables me to estimate the potential influence of the aforementioned environmental bias on cosmology. I also show that this model can be tested using public data and a first analyses tend to confirm our hypotheses. Those results have been published in Astronomy & Astrophysics (Rigault et al. 2013). The third and last part of the document introduces new approaches and future work perspectives. ! In this thesis, I have highlighted significant environmental biases in SNe Ia properties, thanks to the local approach. However, those biases are less an issue for the cosmological analyses using Type Ia supernovae than a new opportunity to improve them as cosmological probes. ! This Document is written in French. The figures are in English
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Mickaël Rigault. Analyses des propriétés locales des galaxies hôtes des Supernovae de type Ia dans la collaboration The Nearby Supernova Factory. Cosmologie et astrophysique extra-galactique [astro-ph.CO]. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013LYO10145⟩. ⟨tel-00905574v2⟩

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