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Microscopie à émission d'électrons balistiques : du magnétotransport d'électrons chauds à l'imagerie magnétique

Abstract : During this thesis work, we studied by ballistic electron magnetic microscopy (BEMM) the hot electron magnetotransport properties of epitaxial Fe/Au/Fe/GaAs(001) heterostructures. In these experiments, hot electrons are injected from an STM tip through the metallic base. The measurement of the ballistic electron current collected at the back of the substrate under magnetic field gives access to the local magnetoconductance properties of the sample. The first part of this work consists in the study of a planar heterostructures. BEMM measurements on epitaxial Fe/Au/Fe/GaAs(001) samples demonstrate hot electron magnetocurrent as high as 500% at room temperature. This high magnetocurrent value is observed to be almost independent of the Fe layers thickness, and thus can not be explained by the spin asymmetry of the electron attenuation length in the iron layers. In this epitaxial heterostructure, the hot electron beam is mainly spin-polarized at the interfaces due to band structure effects. In the metallic thin films, electrons propagate as Bloch states. The electron wave function transmission at the interfaces should satisfy two selection rules: the transverse momentum (k║) of the electron wave vector and the symmetry of the electron wave function should be conserved. Above the Schottky barrier height, hot-electrons are collected in the Г valley of GaAs selecting thus only electrons with a transverse momentum (k║) close to zero. Among these k|| ≈ 0 states, conservation of the electron wave-function symmetry at the Fe/Au epitaxial interfaces additionally selects electrons with the Δ1 symmetry. These Δ1 states are fully spin-polarized and are responsible for the observed high magnetocurrent in these heterostructures. This analysis is experimentally confirmed by the observation of a correlation between the magnetocurrent value and the semiconductor effective mass. By increasing the semiconductor effective mass, we open the collimator which filters the electronic states around k║=0 and the magnetocurrent value decreases. To take advantage of the lateral resolution of the microscope and of its high sensitivity to magnetism, the second part of this work was devoted to the study of sub-micrometric iron structures prepared under UHV by evaporation through a nanostencil. In these structures, the modulation of the collected current by the local magnetic domain structure in the Fe dots allows magnetic imaging with a high spatial resolution. The experimental magnetocontrasts observed on these sub-micrometric Fe dots are in excellent agreement with BEMM current maps calculated from micromagnetic simulation results. This opens the way to a quantitative magnetic microscopy with high contrast and nanometric lateral resolution.
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Submitted on : Friday, November 8, 2013 - 12:21:18 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, January 12, 2021 - 4:46:22 PM

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  • HAL Id : tel-00881485, version 1

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Marie Hervé. Microscopie à émission d'électrons balistiques : du magnétotransport d'électrons chauds à l'imagerie magnétique. Science des matériaux [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Université Rennes 1, 2013. Français. ⟨tel-00881485⟩

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