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Étude du processus de rupture de l'interaction symbiotique medicago truncatula / sinorhizobium meliloti : rôle de cystéine protéases

Abstract : Medicago truncatula is a leguminous plant establishing a symbiotic interaction with the bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti. This symbiosis leads to the de novo development of root nodules involved in biological nitrogen fixation. However, this symbiotic interaction is time limited and an early senescence appears in mature nodule entailing the formation of a senescence zone (zone IV). This degradation process occurs earlier in comparison to senescence of the whole plant. During nodule developmental senescence of plant host cells, a gradual degradation process induces a loss of vacuole and peribacteroid membrane (PBM). But this nodule degradation process still remains to be unravelled. To increase our understanding of the nodule senescence process, we developed new cytologic tools allowing an in vivo assessment of the viability and functioning of bacteroids within plant host cells. Therefore, these new tools provide a new insight of the nodule senescence process which may help for a finer characterization of the nodule senescence. In the M. truncatula model, a previous cDNA-AFLP analysis enlightens an upregulation of several cysteine proteinases during the transition from nitrogen fixing nodule to a senescent one; including an early expression of an SPG31-like peptidase known to be involved in leaf senescence (MtCP6) and a Vacuolar Processing Enzyme described as a plant caspase-like protein (MtVPE) involved in mechanisms similar to hypersensitive response in A. thaliana. In planta spatiotemporal analysis of the expression of these two cysteine proteinases using promoter:reporter gene GUS confirmed their expression during natural senescence at the junction between the nitrogen fixing zone (zone III) and the senescence zone (zone IV). Therefore, to acquire a better insight into the role of these cysteine proteases during the senescence program, we knocked down by RNAi the expression of each gene specifically at the interzone III-IV. Depletion of these transcripts induced a drastic increased of N2 fixation and nodule size. Conversely, overexpression of both genes in the zone III of nodule leads to an extension of the senescence zone. Confocal microscopy images of protein:GFP fusions showed that both proteinases are addressed to bacteroids within plant host cells. Our data revealed that MtCP6 and MtVPE are key players of the nodule senescence process and may be directly involved in symbiosome degradation.
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  • HAL Id : tel-00880229, version 1
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Olivier Pierre. Étude du processus de rupture de l'interaction symbiotique medicago truncatula / sinorhizobium meliloti : rôle de cystéine protéases. Sciences agricoles. Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013NICE4072⟩. ⟨tel-00880229⟩

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