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Arrêt de la prolifération cellulaire pendant le développement embryonnaire : étude transcriptionnelle de gènes suppresseurs de tumeurs au cours de la croissance du système nerveux central chez le poisson médaka Oryzias latipes

Abstract : How is an organisms’ size regulated during embryonic development? What are the genetic mechanisms that control the proliferation arrest during multicellular organisms growth? In order to identify a cell cycle exit developmental actor genes, I have analysed the role of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in the optic tectum (OT) of the medaka Oryzias latipes. This structure is particularly suited for this kind of studies because, during its morphogenesis, there is a strict correlation between the position of a cell and its degree of differentiation. 3 zones can be easily distinguished from the border to the center: a marginal zone made of proliferative cells, an intermediate zone in which cells exit the cycle, and a central zone made of postmitotic cells. Using this criterium, I have performed an in situ hybridization expression screen on 150 TSGs on medaka embryos. The expression patterns of 28 TSGs in the OT suggest their implication in the OT proliferation arrest mechanisms. I focused my study on the BTG1 gene, implicated in many cancers, and for which few developmental data are available. A functional analysis on developing medaka embryos has been performed and permitted to highlight the essential role of BTG1 in central nervous system morphogenesis. Furthermore, I performed an expression study on Hippo signalling pathway components. Hippo pathway is well caracterised for its organ size control function in drosophila and Mammals. Our results show that this pathway could act in OT formation and somitogenesis in medaka fish.
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Mathilde Devès. Arrêt de la prolifération cellulaire pendant le développement embryonnaire : étude transcriptionnelle de gènes suppresseurs de tumeurs au cours de la croissance du système nerveux central chez le poisson médaka Oryzias latipes. Sciences agricoles. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA112171⟩. ⟨tel-00879146⟩

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