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Aspects cinétiques et acoustiques en simulation numérique des grandes échelles, et application à l'étude du contrôle de l'écoulement de jeu en turbomachines

Abstract : Flows in turbomachines such as jet engines are subject to large vortical structures and strong turbulent intensities. In particular, secondary flows generated in the fan tip region result in energy losses, instabilities and noise radiation. An accurate simulation of such flows can be achieved with large-eddy simulation(LES), which reproduces the most energetic turbulent eddies. In regard of the flowphysics of highly unsteady wall-bounded flows, the SISM (shear-improved Smagorinsky model) is selected to model the sub-grid scales in the present study. This model is local and takes into account the influence of the mean shear. Two smoothing algorithms that are local in space are developed to evaluate the mean flow required by the model : an exponential averaging and an adaptative Kalman filter. These methods are first tested in a channel flow configuration. The numerical approaches are then evaluated on a relevant academic test case :the flow past a circular cylinder in the sub-critical regime (Re = 4, 7 × 104). This flow is dominated by large quasi-periodic vortical structures together with high intensity turbulent fluctuations; quite similarly but much simpler than those found in the tip gap flow. The aerodynamic as well as the acoustic results of the simulations are in very good agreement with the experimental data. A comparative study of the two smoothing algorithms for mean-flow extraction shows that the adaptability of the Kalman filtering leads to slightly better results. Finally, the study of a fan tip-gap flow is carried out with a zonal approach (LES in the tip region, RANS in the hub and midspan region). The reference simulation gives remarkable results in the blade-tip region, particularly for the velocity spectra. A second simulation with a control device by suction through the casing close to the blade leading edge shows two interesting features : a reduction of the turbulence level around the blade tip, and a modification of the tip-vortex trajectory (thus preventing impingement on the adjacent blade). These effects induce a notable reduction of the noise sources.
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Adrien Cahuzac. Aspects cinétiques et acoustiques en simulation numérique des grandes échelles, et application à l'étude du contrôle de l'écoulement de jeu en turbomachines. Autre. Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012ECDL0017⟩. ⟨tel-00879051⟩

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